Ryo Hazuki wrote: sniper wrote:
I don't remember one single aicar positive.
One reason being they don't test for it.
Yes there is a test, but the baseline is controversial. Besides, I believe the only lab that can test for it is cologne, but to my knowledge UNI have not used that lab in a long time. Not since cookson cooking is in charge.
I'm happy to be corrected though.
several riders were caught on it, even in world tour like miguel ubeto from lampre, also there is marlon perez, a colombian who was caught in costa rica
Both those riders you referenced tested positive for GW501516...not AICAR.
Both GW501516 & AICAR are metabolic modulators, but are different chemically. GW501516 has a very long elimination rate for one; upwards to 40 days for a single 15mg dose can be detected. GW501516 is also very toxic causing neoplastic pathology in rats during the clinical trials (one reason why it didn't make it past the animal trials). AICAR is difficult to detect as it's produced endogenously. WADA currently uses a threshold measure to detect possible use of AICAR. To date, I'm not aware of any AICAR threshold positives (I'm sure it would be big news in the cycling world). Here's an excellent study on both substances (metabolic pathways, elimination rates, health risks, etc.):
> J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Aug;65(4):469-76.
Metabolic modulators of the exercise response: doping control analysis of an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (GW501516) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR).
Pokrywka A1, Cholbinski P, Kaliszewski P, Kowalczyk K, Koncza
I recall the CIRC report from last year stating that AICAR was popular in the peloton. And quantities of AICAR & TB 500 were found in the possession of Colombian doping doctor Alberto Beltran when he was arrested in Spain in 2013...so it's probably out there.