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In Blood Stepped: The History Of Blood Doping In Sport

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Re: Re:

18 Sep 2016 18:48

fmk_RoI wrote:
Aragon wrote:It should be added that author's claim about "widespread use" starting right after the 1968 Olympics is totally unsubstantiated claim as even his source for the allegation(Randy Eichner) insists only that the research was sparked by the high-altitude olympics, a claim I have my own reasons to think is not true.
Remind me again where you date the origin of interest. I agree with you that Ekblom's 1972 paper is the big breakthrough and I agree that the Pace paper from the 40s I referred to in the articles (and I appear to be in error referring to two Pace papers, the two are part of the one) and the Gullbring paper from the 60s don't really count (the knowledge they give sports scientists is a by-product).

I am not referring to any published work that showed interest in "blood doping" before México, but I have several trustworthy sources confirming that the research culminating in the 1972 breakthrough study began in Sweden as early as 1966, if not a year or two earlier. The most important people in the project were Björn Ekblom, Per-Olof Åstrand and Bengt Gullbring, of whom first two were famous exercise physiologist and Gullbring a big shot in the Blood Service and also a coauthor of the now-and-then referred 1960 blood reinfusion study.

Still the México-claim isn't totally untrue, as there was a high altitude blood transfusion - study right after the 1968 Olympics, pretty much confirming with actual athletes what Nello Pace and his team had already researched with privates, but even after going through a wast amount of literature, I recall seeing only two references to the paper. As I referred in another thread, it was published in a sports medicine publication where many Central Europeans and Belgians published, so there is a slight possibility that the 1972 Merkcx-transfusion actually has its roots in this research and not in Ekblom.

My intention wasn't to take any ethical stance on the issue, but only to discuss the way the term "blood doping" is used. I think that Dr. Norman H. Gledhill summarizes the consensus view of the term in his opening lines of his famous 1982 blood doping literature review:
During the past decade there has been persistent interest in the topic of induced erythrocythemia, commonly termed blood doping or blood boosting. An experimental subject or athlete who has a normal level of red blood cells (RBCs) is given additional blood with the intention of increasing maximal aerobic power (Vo2MAX).

http://d3epuodzu3wuis.cloudfront.net/R072.pdf

The association of the term "blood doping" to the Swedish research goes back ten years earlier to autumn 1971, when Track & Field News referred the new Swedish invention with that name. Björn Ekblom himself also used the term in an article only a year later.

As you mentioned, there was a wide range of blood therapies that more confuse than clarify the issue. These could've been referred as "blood doping" by the competitors as well as other people. To confuse further the evidence, there could've been unintentional false memories particularly if cyclists remembered even decades after the fact having seen empty IV-bags and bloody needles, they could've imagined seeing something else than what actually was happening.
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Re: Re:

19 Sep 2016 15:03

fmk_RoI wrote:
Aragon wrote:There is an interesting chart of distribution of hematocrit values in UCI's 2001 leaflet 40 years of fighting against doping (p. 17) about hematocrit values of 1997 vs. pre-1988.
http://oldsite.uci.ch/english/health_sante/docs/40_ans.pdf
There is no explanation, no source or no indication, from where the data comes from. While one could question the 1997 data, there are some suspiciously high hematocrits in the pre-1988 data and the mean is also suspiciously high. (I'd upload the image of the chart, but the webpage keeps saying that "Sorry, the board attachment quota has been reached", whatever that means.)
Two points to consider: impact on pre-1988 figures of a cohort of Colombian cyclists; impact on 1997 figures of artificial manipulation (downward) techniques such as saline drips. I'll Tweet it later and ask Ross Tucker for a quick comment on it.

While totally not ruled out possibility, the effect and prevalence of blood dilution shouldn't be overestimated, as it is mainly logistically reasonable only in the danger zone (Hct >50 %), so it shouldn't move the bell curve to left but lead only to suspicious cluster of athletes slightly below the upper limit. Even when there was a high amount of blood dilution through HES, saline, albumin and frozen plasma, the mean hemoglobin values of cross country skiers still increased suspiciously from around 14.8 g/dl (1989) to around 16.5 g/dl (1997-1998) in the EPO-decade as illustrated in a study published by a group of Scandinavian researchers in 2000 (Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000: 10: 98–102).

There is a clue how the data was collected in a letter that a team of Dutch researchers wrote to the medical journal Lancet (Vol. 352, Nov 28, 1998):
Between 1980 and 1986, 34 professional cyclists from leading racing teams had routine blood tests to monitor health and training stress. During this 6-year period, venous blood samples were taken after a minimum rest of 3–4 h; Hb and PCV were determined by routine laboratory methods. From 353 samples the mean Hb was 9·05 (SD 0·48) mmol/L (range 8·3–10·2) and PCV 0·43 (0·02) (range 0·39–0·48). Both Hb and PCV values were normally distributed.

http://digitalarchive.maastrichtuniversity.nl/fedora/get/guid:9a1b20e3-5e78-410a-9513-823d9b27a7a9/ASSET1

As usual, things are not that clear and there is a problem. The highest PCV (ie. hematocrit) referred here is 48 %, whereas it is clearly significantly higher (57 %) in the UCI-chart, so it isn't that clear that there are all UCIs samples in the 353 samples referred by the Dutch researchers, if the data even originated from the same source.

If you want to take a deeper look into the matter, perhaps someone from the UCI medical commission (Schattenberg) knows more details about the pre-1997 blood sample collection and there is also a corresponding author in the letter, Wim H. Saris, who has done extensive research on cycling even quite recently (just a wild guess that the Saris Power Meter has something to do with him).
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Re: Re:

19 Sep 2016 15:32

Aragon wrote:There is a clue how the data was collected in a letter that a team of Dutch researchers wrote to the medical journal Lancet (Vol. 352, Nov 28, 1998):
Between 1980 and 1986, 34 professional cyclists from leading racing teams had routine blood tests to monitor health and training stress. During this 6-year period, venous blood samples were taken after a minimum rest of 3–4 h; Hb and PCV were determined by routine laboratory methods. From 353 samples the mean Hb was 9·05 (SD 0·48) mmol/L (range 8·3–10·2) and PCV 0·43 (0·02) (range 0·39–0·48). Both Hb and PCV values were normally distributed.

http://digitalarchive.maastrichtuniversity.nl/fedora/get/guid:9a1b20e3-5e78-410a-9513-823d9b27a7a9/ASSET1
Well that helps with something I only thought of later yesterday: the UCI was down on blood tests until 1997, when the haematocrit test was enacted. Verbruggen opposed blood tests on a matter of principle: "It must be made clear that our anti-drug commission has always been against blood test controls because of ethical problems."
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19 Sep 2016 20:32

34 professional cyclists from leading racing teams


Perhaps riders from DAF trucks and Panasonic. Saris was part of the team with Kuipers and van den Hoogenband in Maastricht.
http://www.delpher.nl/nl/kranten/view?http://www.delpher.nl/nl/kranten/view?query=hoogenband+kuipers+saris&coll=ddd&identifier=KBNRC01%3A000029789%3Ampeg21%3Aa0089&resultsidentifier=KBNRC01%3A000029789%3Ampeg21%3Aa0089
Tienus
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20 Sep 2016 06:45

Day 0 7 14 15 21
Hb (mmol/L) 9·2 (0·3) 9·1 (0·3) 9·0 (0·3) 9·1 (0·4) 8·9 (0·4)
Range 8·6–10·3 8·7–10·1 8·5–10·2 8·4–10·1 8·0–9·9
PCV 0·45 (0·04) 0·44 (0·04) 0·43 (0·05) 0·44 (0·05) 0·42 (0·05)
Range 0·39–0·49 0·38–0·48 0·37–0·47 0·37–0·47 0·36–0·47
Hb and PCV from nine professional cyclists (n=9) during the
Tour de France in 1984

Looks like the data from the Panasonic squad. Do those numbers tell us anything?
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Re:

21 Sep 2016 07:41

Tienus wrote:Day 0 7 14 15 21
Hb (mmol/L) 9·2 (0·3) 9·1 (0·3) 9·0 (0·3) 9·1 (0·4) 8·9 (0·4)
Range 8·6–10·3 8·7–10·1 8·5–10·2 8·4–10·1 8·0–9·9
PCV 0·45 (0·04) 0·44 (0·04) 0·43 (0·05) 0·44 (0·05) 0·42 (0·05)
Range 0·39–0·49 0·38–0·48 0·37–0·47 0·37–0·47 0·36–0·47
Hb and PCV from nine professional cyclists (n=9) during the
Tour de France in 1984

Looks like the data from the Panasonic squad. Do those numbers tell us anything?

which day(s) was the rest day?
numbers seem to go up a bit going from day 14 to day 15
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21 Sep 2016 08:32

Looks like there was only one rest day after stage 15.
http://www.bikeraceinfo.com/tdf/tdf1984.html

I'm not sure if the numbers really go up. There might be all sorts of explanations for it like normal fluctuations. Panasonic finished the tour with 8 riders this might also have influenced the mean.

I think the mean and the highest at the start of the tour are quite high. Panasonic spent much time at altitude in Font Remeu so this could be explained. I do think however that the drop after 3 weeks of tour (with 23 stages and only 1 rest day) is smaller than I would have expected. Maybe I'm wrong as I'm no expert on this.

I failed to make the table fit correctly in my post but the original can be seen here in the link from Aragon on the last page.
http://digitalarchive.maastrichtuniversity.nl/fedora/get/guid:9a1b20e3-5e78-410a-9513-823d9b27a7a9/ASSET1
the mean at the start of the tour is .45 and at the end .42 the highest sore at the start .49 vs .47 at the finish.
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21 Sep 2016 09:15

Yes, that drop off seems small.
Important caveat: don't forget the impact steroids can have on blood values. (how exactly i have no idea though)

either way, it's hard to fathom they weren't doing some kind of blood boosting.
This is twelve years after Ekblom's paper and 12 years after the Germans started doing ozon therapy.
And meanwhile in LA the unpaid amateurs are fooling around with homologous blood transfusions, so what are the odds that the royally paid pros aren't doing something similar, or even more sophisticated.
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Re:

21 Sep 2016 09:32

sniper wrote:Yes, that drop off seems small.
Important caveat: don't forget the impact steroids can have on blood values. (how exactly i have no idea though)

either way, it's hard to fathom they weren't doing some kind of blood boosting.
This is twelve years after Ekblom's paper and 12 years after the Germans started doing ozon therapy.
And meanwhile in LA the unpaid amateurs are fooling around with homologous blood transfusions, so what are the odds that the royally paid pros aren't doing something similar, or even more sophisticated.

I don't have access to my research file at this moment, but I have a recollection that Björn Ekblom told in 1975 that West Germans had blood doped one of their swimmers some times earlier and he broke the national record because of that. Very well-known West German exercise physiologist Wildor Hollmann had also published a study on blood doping as early as 1975 with researcher Richard Rost (referred incorrectly almost always in English literature as "Von Rost"). There was some debate a few years ago about the nature of that research when historian Giselher Spitzer claimed that it was R&D for doping purposes whereas Hollmann insisted that it was only a scientific inquiry.

I am not quite sure whether this Der Spiegel article from 1990 refers to the swimmer episode mentioned by Ekblom:
Und mit Professor Richard Rost wurde ein Sportmediziner an die Spitze des angesehenen Institutes für Sportmedizin in Köln gewählt, dem bei Experimenten mit Blutdoping vor den Olympischen Spielen in München beinahe ein Schwimmer gestorben wäre. Kraul-Spezialist Werner Krammel, damals 24, fiel bei einem Belastungstest bewußtlos vom Fahrrad-Ergometer und hatte "einen Herzstillstand von 30 Sekunden".

Der importierte Dopingfachmann Riedel wirkt inzwischen im Nebenjob segensreich für die Läuferinnen aus dem Westen, er betreut die bundesdeutschen Mittelstrecklerinnen. Aus seiner langjährigen Arbeit als Leichtathletik-Arzt in der DDR kennt er jeden Trick, mit dem die Athleten von drüben stark und schnell gemacht wurden.

http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-13502181.html
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21 Sep 2016 10:22

either way, it's hard to fathom they weren't doing some kind of blood boosting.
This is twelve years after Ekblom's paper and 12 years after the Germans started doing ozon therapy.
And meanwhile in LA the unpaid amateurs are fooling around with homologous blood transfusions, so what are the odds that the royally paid pros aren't doing something similar, or even more sophisticated.


I totally agree. Reading up on the Panasonic team made me realize how sophisticated the team doping allready was back then. Blood was going from the tour to Maastricht where the values where determined before the next day. If blood was going to Maastricht then it could have also been going the other way.
I thought Panasonic biomedical was kind of a funny link to blooddoping but maybe I was closer to the truth than I thought. The lab in Maastricht still uses Panasonic equipment and sponsoring.
http://www.labvision.nl/redactioneel/lv23/incuberen-van-de-eerste-synthetische-hamburger.html
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21 Sep 2016 10:31

That Ros Story is interesting as its more proof that blood doping was going on before the Munich olympics.
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Re:

21 Sep 2016 11:21

sniper wrote:This is twelve years after Ekblom's paper and 12 years after the Germans started doing ozon therapy.
And meanwhile in LA the unpaid amateurs are fooling around with homologous blood transfusions, so what are the odds that the royally paid pros aren't doing something similar, or even more sophisticated.
Time to remind people of the Irish blood doping programme. In the 1960s Shay Elliott - who rode as a domestique for Jacques Anquetil alongside Jean Stablinski - was an occasional visitor to the McQuaid household, as recounted by Pat McQuaid in the Shay Elliott biography, Shay Elliott. In the same way that Eddie Borysewicz learned about blood manipulation through Stablinski and Anquetil, Elliott is clearly the key - the father even - of the Irish blood doping programme (while Elliott did write about doping in one of the British Sundays he never mentioned the use of blood transfusions - a significant omission on his part which makes much sense now we know what we now know). Pat McQuaid himself went on to study Phys Ed where - obviously - he would have familiarised himself with all of the available literature. There is even a possibility that he himself may have contributed some of his own, pseudonymously, his adventures in South Africa demonstrating a fondness for doing things under assumed names. This knowledge was, obviously, used at the various international races the Irish competed at, in particular the Tour of Britain, the Worlds and the Olympics. It, obviously, also, was carried back into the professional peloton by the likes of Sean Kelly, Stephen Roche, Paul Kimmage, Martin Earley and Alan McCormack (coincidentally the five members of the Irish team on the day Stephen Roche won his World Championships - read into that what you will knowing what we know about what is happening in hotel rooms on their eve). Roche himself, he was able to refine his knowledge of the process by direct contact with Anquetil. David Walsh, ghosting Roche's autobiography, The Agony and the Ecstasy: Stephen Roche's World of Cycling (note to coy reference to amphetamines in the title - he really was shameless about these things), writes of the two meeting and of Anquetil advising Roche. Roche also had a particular fondness for Raphaël Géminiani, Anquetil's former mentor, who was his directeur sportif for a time, helping him to pull of that exploit on the Aubisque in 85, for which Roche acknowledges Gém had 'prepared' him fully in advance (we all know that that means all the available doping methods, including transfusions). And, of course, there's Sean Kelly, who unlike Roche was not a super responder to transfusions and invariably had a jour sans in the Tour after receiving one, which was particularly hard on him in 1983 when it cut short his stint in the yellow jersey, a story referred to by Willy Voet in Massacre à la chaîne where he, tellingly, fails to attribute it to a botched blood transfusions (which would have been a criminal offence in France at the time) and painted it more softly, blaming the wrong kind of cortisone. All of this Irish knowledge about blood, of course, culminated in 2007 with the introduction by none other than Pat McQuaid himself - the man who learned it all from Jacques Anquetil via Shay Elliott - of the blood passport, the surest way the UCI could find of legalising available blood manipulation practices without admitting to the world that it was legalising available blood manipulation practices. All of this also explains Sky's interest in David Walsh and Nico Roche: with the ABP in situ they had to wind back the clock to the days of Maître Jacques and so they sought the knowledge Walsh had from Roche and Roche Jnr had from Roche Snr. They would have called on Elliott himself but he blew his brains out with a shotgun won at the Vuelta, probably because of all the EPO he had taken.
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Re:

23 Sep 2016 18:32

Tienus wrote:That Ros Story is interesting as its more proof that blood doping was going on before the Munich olympics.

Because there were some scientific inquirys on the blood doping already between the first media reports (September 1971) and when the actual Ekblom study was published (August 1972), it is difficult to pinpoint the exact nature of the 1972 Rost-experiment, whether it was an honest scientific inquiry or R&D for doping purposes. Historian Giselher Spitzer makes no mention about the incident in his recent inquiry into the doping practices of West Germany and Richard Rost himself writes in a textbook on sports medicine that blood doping became known only in 1976 when the accusations against Viren were in headlines during Montreal Olympics.

But some blood doping activity was going on, as one Finnish long distance runner admitted in 1981 that he received a blood transfusion before the 1972 Summer Olympics and implicated others. There is also quite reliable rumours regarding at least two other endurance runners (whom neither is Viren), with one claim going back to early as 1968.
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Re: Re:

23 Sep 2016 19:41

fmk_RoI wrote:
sniper wrote:This is twelve years after Ekblom's paper and 12 years after the Germans started doing ozon therapy.
And meanwhile in LA the unpaid amateurs are fooling around with homologous blood transfusions, so what are the odds that the royally paid pros aren't doing something similar, or even more sophisticated.
Time to remind people of the Irish blood doping programme. In the 1960s Shay Elliott - who rode as a domestique for Jacques Anquetil alongside Jean Stablinski - was an occasional visitor to the McQuaid household, as recounted by Pat McQuaid in the Shay Elliott biography, Shay Elliott. In the same way that Eddie Borysewicz learned about blood manipulation through Stablinski and Anquetil, Elliott is clearly the key - the father even - of the Irish blood doping programme (while Elliott did write about doping in one of the British Sundays he never mentioned the use of blood transfusions - a significant omission on his part which makes much sense now we know what we now know). Pat McQuaid himself went on to study Phys Ed where - obviously - he would have familiarised himself with all of the available literature. There is even a possibility that he himself may have contributed some of his own, pseudonymously, his adventures in South Africa demonstrating a fondness for doing things under assumed names. This knowledge was, obviously, used at the various international races the Irish competed at, in particular the Tour of Britain, the Worlds and the Olympics. It, obviously, also, was carried back into the professional peloton by the likes of Sean Kelly, Stephen Roche, Paul Kimmage, Martin Earley and Alan McCormack (coincidentally the five members of the Irish team on the day Stephen Roche won his World Championships - read into that what you will knowing what we know about what is happening in hotel rooms on their eve). Roche himself, he was able to refine his knowledge of the process by direct contact with Anquetil. David Walsh, ghosting Roche's autobiography, The Agony and the Ecstasy: Stephen Roche's World of Cycling (note to coy reference to amphetamines in the title - he really was shameless about these things), writes of the two meeting and of Anquetil advising Roche. Roche also had a particular fondness for Raphaël Géminiani, Anquetil's former mentor, who was his directeur sportif for a time, helping him to pull of that exploit on the Aubisque in 85, for which Roche acknowledges Gém had 'prepared' him fully in advance (we all know that that means all the available doping methods, including transfusions). And, of course, there's Sean Kelly, who unlike Roche was not a super responder to transfusions and invariably had a jour sans in the Tour after receiving one, which was particularly hard on him in 1983 when it cut short his stint in the yellow jersey, a story referred to by Willy Voet in Massacre à la chaîne where he, tellingly, fails to attribute it to a botched blood transfusions (which would have been a criminal offence in France at the time) and painted it more softly, blaming the wrong kind of cortisone. All of this Irish knowledge about blood, of course, culminated in 2007 with the introduction by none other than Pat McQuaid himself - the man who learned it all from Jacques Anquetil via Shay Elliott - of the blood passport, the surest way the UCI could find of legalising available blood manipulation practices without admitting to the world that it was legalising available blood manipulation practices. All of this also explains Sky's interest in David Walsh and Nico Roche: with the ABP in situ they had to wind back the clock to the days of Maître Jacques and so they sought the knowledge Walsh had from Roche and Roche Jnr had from Roche Snr. They would have called on Elliott himself but he blew his brains out with a shotgun won at the Vuelta, probably because of all the EPO he had taken.


I think you are really onto something there FMK, looks very dodgy and sinister. I will use my CI membership to demand a full investigation at the next AGM.
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23 Sep 2016 20:06

nah, he already has the whole story.
more or less ;)
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Re:

24 Sep 2016 03:05

sniper wrote:Yes, that drop off seems small.
Important caveat: don't forget the impact steroids can have on blood values. (how exactly i have no idea though)


People forget about that. There are a number of steroids that trigger erythropoiesis. These would have been well used in the 80s. The effect is significant.

When Floyd Landis used HGH with no other drugs, his hematocrit increased by three points. He gained seven to eight Watts in FTP per point during initial artificial increases of HCT, so that would be a ~5% FTP gain. That is very large at the elite level.
"Their world is crumbling. Ours is being built."
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Re: Re:

24 Sep 2016 08:49

DamianoMachiavelli wrote:
sniper wrote:Yes, that drop off seems small.
Important caveat: don't forget the impact steroids can have on blood values. (how exactly i have no idea though)


People forget about that. There are a number of steroids that trigger erythropoiesis. These would have been well used in the 80s. The effect is significant.

When Floyd Landis used HGH with no other drugs, his hematocrit increased by three points. He gained seven to eight Watts in FTP per point during initial artificial increases of HCT, so that would be a ~5% FTP gain. That is very large at the elite level.


Excellent point..and there are a number of studies that support androgenic steriod-induced erythropoiesis. One study showed a ~9.6% increase in Hct with androgenic steriods, about the same percentage increase seen with some of the test subjects in Ashenden's microdose EPO study. Another study had a slightly higher percentage increase based on a dose-dependent use of testosterone:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3995222
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18160461

Curious; when did Landis first start using HGH? Was it before or in conjunction with blood doping when he signed on with USPS?
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Re: Re:

24 Sep 2016 14:11

sniper wrote:I do not share your sentiments that some of it is just "unsubstantiated gossip that circulates from time-to-time".
If you think about motives, I can't think of any motive to just make up a story about being offered a blood bag anno 1966. Sure, theoretically the skater may have made it up, but it's more likely that it simply happened.
Iow, it doesn't sound "really questionable" to me; it sounds quite plausible.

Btw, the 1966 anecdote must be the same anecdote I referred to above, mistakenly putting it in the year 1976.

Another interesting thing from your post is Astrand's denial, anno 1973.
It suggests (together with other evidence from the time) that these researchers and physiologists, in that early period, were already well aware that the practice of blood boosting was (at least in the long run) going to be looked upon as cheating.

Here is some additional information on the alleged Jonny Nilsson's blood doping - incident of 1966.

As it is well established, Swedish speed skater Jonny Nilsson has claimed that exercise physiologist Björn Ekblom offered him an opportunity to use blood doping in 1966. The incident wasn't related to the Winter Olympics and took place at the beginning of February 1966 in Norway, just some three weeks before the Oslo Winter Olympics. Nilsson declined the blood doping offer and a few days later lost the 10000m event to his main Norwegian competitor Fred Anton Maier, who also shattered his world record. "You should've done as I told you and this hadn't happened", the doctor is quoted as saying to Nilsson in the locker room after the race.

There are some other brief references to the incident, this version comes from the the story published by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation three years ago, where Ekblom isn't referred by name, but his name is linked to the story elsewhere.

https://www.nrk.no/sport/ble-tilbudt-bloddoping-i-1966-1.10911639

Nilsson also had actually revealed the blood doping proposal as early as 1999, but then he had another context for the proposal as the rationale "was not for doping purposes, it was pure research". The same article has Ekblom denying the incident and claiming that "blood doping didn't exist in 1966" (Aftonbladet, 9/29/1999).

Evolving recollections are itself highly suspicious, but the story has additional strange feature. The blood removal/storage/reinfusion process takes up to a month, but from Nilsson's chronology, the timespan from "refusal" to locker room incident is only a few days. It is always possible that he had already donated blood but declined the reinfusion or that the researchers used blood of a donour, a method of which none of the half a dozen of the published blood doping studies by Gymnastik och Idrottshögsköla (GIH) used, perhaps on practical and ethical grounds.

It could be that Ekblom was present in Oslo and had access to locker rooms in foreign countries, but it is very unlikely that then twenty-seven-year old Björn Ekblom was an accredited doctor of the Swedish speed skating team.
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24 Sep 2016 14:41

Good info and analysis, Aragon, much appreciated.
You're right to take the anecdote with caution.

I reckon you know this book?
https://books.google.pl/books?id=5pTwCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=Per-Olof+%C3%85strand+blood+doping&source=bl&ots=DtQPwKB5-m&sig=XYmyzMTlGCJ-GML8UQVuOEHZE4o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAWoVChMI_8Smw-q5xwIVRtgsCh0QuwjS#v=onepage&q=Per-Olof%20%C3%85strand%20blood%20doping&f=false
The incident is described at the bottom of p.118 (which I can't see in my preview) and top of the p. 119.
It suggests something about Astrand making similar proposals to athletes, btw.
But no specifications, unfortunately. So it all remains very anecdotal/speculative, etc.


On a different note, wouldn't it be great to have access to US military literature. I read somewhere that in the 60s Frederick Hagerman's wrote his PhD for the US Army on the topic of how altitude effects soldiers in combat.
I wouldn't be surprised to learn that the US military were frontrunners in the development of blood transfusions for military - and by extension athletic - purposes.
Hence also my previous inquiry about Charles Drew. It's something I personally really lack the time to delve into. And I doubt that such literature can be accessed through regular libraries. (Or maybe there simply isn;t much to it, and maybe looking at the military is a red herring?)
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24 Sep 2016 14:59

If you simply look at the times for long distance running it certainly looks suspiscious from 1965 onwards. I know Ron Clarke and Kipchoge Keino explained their fast times by the fact that they stayed at altitude until just before the race. Pre 1970 times where good for a long time and you see the same patern in 5k 10k and the marathon.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/timeline/80dbe34ba30b26fe60d13e5c3c2f7754.png
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/timeline/9a42edfc412d76319d227b562aeda0e1.png
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Tienus
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