Race Design Thread

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Summary Paris-Nice v2

Stage 1: Fontainebleau - Bourges: 188 km
Stage 2: Moulins - Clermont Ferrand: 174 km
Stage 3: Clermont Ferrand - Villefranche sur Saone: 198 km
Stage 4: Macon - Amberieu en Bugey: 175 km
Stage 5: Lyon-Lyon: 25 km ITT
Stage 6: Valence - Station Valdrome: 152 km
Stage 7: Carpetras - Frejus: 213 km
Stage 8: Nice - Nice: 117 km

Total: 1242 km

3 medium mountain stage (Macon - Amberieu en Bugey, Nice-Nice and Valence-Station Valdrome)
2 hilly stages
2 flat stages
1 TT

3 cat. 1 climbs (Col de Bertiand, Col de Pennes and Station Valdrome) and 10 cat. 2 climbs

4 of the stages could/should be decisive for the GC. The three medium mountain stages should balance the medium long ITT in Lyon. The objective was to create a route that make sure that a rider could afford to lose some time at the ITT, but still has the possibility to regain this time gap at the hilly/medium mountain stages.
 
After the thread's usual July layoff, time to complete the job in Germany.

Stage 12: Neuwied - Aachen, 183km





GPM:
Effelsberg (cat.3) 3,1km @ 4,6%
Nöthener Tannen (cat.3) 1,1km @ 11,0%
Herhahn (cat.3) 3,2km @ 5,2%
Rohren (cat.3) 2,6km @ 7,7%
Kierberg (cat.3) 1,3km @ 9,0%
Imgenbroich (cat.3) 2,8km @ 4,6%
Kevelaerberg (cat.3) 1,3km @ 9,0%

After a transfer up the Main and Rhein into the Eifel mountains, we set off from the riverside industrial city of Neuwied.



Originally growing quickly due to its religious tolerance, the city of Neuwied now boasts over 60.000 inhabitants. Despite a history of aristocrats and entrepreneurs, I first came across it as a city that played host to one of the most vibrant punk scenes in Germany, lagging behind Hamburg and West Berlin at the time of course, but Neuwied’s musical sons Toxoplasma were arguably the band that brought hardcore punk to Germany; Berlin’s PVC may have brought the Ramones-esque rock’n’roll filtered punk, Hamburg may have opened the gates to spiky, angular post-punk via groups like Abwärts, but Neuwied gave Germany hardcore, and soon a self-contained scene had emerged, from which other bands sprang, most notably Tarnfarbe, who aped the high-speed, high-adrenaline style that Toxoplasma had brought in under the influence of American porto-hardcore acts. It is also the hometown of DTM Champion and Le Mans winner Mike Rockenfeller, part of the Porsche and Audi factory programmes, and Team Sunweb’s sprinter Max Walscheid, a sprinter who has managed several wins at ‘lesser’ races like Hainan, Yorkshire, the Münsterland Giro and the Denmark Rundt, but not been able to replicate that at the World Tour level, where he has largely been deployed as a leadout man, though he has managed some strong placements as well as hitting the podium in the S**********s.



Now, we may have left the major mountain ranges of the south of Germany behind, but that doesn’t mean we’re done with obstacles, and indeed this is a stage which serves as a potential banana skin, including no fewer than seven categorised climbs as well as a few that I didn’t see fit to award points for. Nevertheless, none are above category 3, and the highest altitude reached in the stage is a whopping 550m above sea level, so they aren’t going to be getting any nosebleeds, at least not unless somebody in the péloton gets unnecessarily personal with a combative rider like Gianni Moscon or Nacer Bouhanni and some rough justice is meted out.

Being deep into the second week of the race and with some serious mountains behind us in the Schwarzwald and the Bavarian Alps, of course, there will be some teams who have had to reappraise their goals and some teams desperately trying to get something out of the race, and so I would hope for a good fight for the breakaway, especially as, with a very early intermediate sprint in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler well inside the first hour of racing, if there’s a battle for the points jersey or the time bonuses are still GC-relevant, we may well see some in the péloton wanting to keep things together before that sprint. Although there is an uncategorised rise before the sprint, this is all at low gradients and so I’d expect that apart from the outright most rotten of climbers, all of the relevant battlers for the points classification will happily make it over this ascent - and any sprinters whose climbing is that rotten probably won’t have survived the Steinplatte or Götschen stages.

As a result, we’re making a beeline for the Eifel mountains, en route to the tri-nation border area between the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. As most cycling fans will be well aware, this area can get pretty hilly - after all, it is where the Eifels meet the Limburger hills - home to the Amstel Gold Race - and they in turn meet the Ardennes - home to the Ardennes classics, among other races. Including a few Grand Tour départs, not that you’d know the area was hilly from those.



So, for a while, we snake through the valley road of the Ahr river, which is one of Germany’s foremost wine-growing areas and its benchmark for red wine (of course, Germany’s more famous and popular wines tend to be white), before reaching our first categorised climb of the day, the Effelsberg. This is decently long but generally fairly unthreatening, at an average of 5% or just under for 3km of wide roads, and has the Radioteleskop Effelsberg at its summit, before we descend into the spa town of Bad Münstereifel. This serves as the foot of our second categorised climb, Nöthener Tannen. There are two roads that lead to this ridge from the centre of town; the Nöthener Straße, a two-lane road of 1,6km @ 7,5%, and Bergstraße, a single-track goat path which is 1,1km @ 11% and with 200m at 19% in the middle. You can probably guess which one we’re taking. Sure, there’s over 100km to go, but no harm in additional platforms to work from.

The scenery continues as we head along the route of a tourist railway line from Kall to Schleiden, which hosts the second intermediate sprint and leads directly into our next climb, the Herhahn ascent which, like our first climb of the day, is a fairly consistent one averaging 5%. The descent into Einruhr leads to an uncategorised climb - it’s about 1,2km @ 4,5% but consists of two steep 500m runs interrupted by 200m flat, so it could be underestimated. Realistically, however, the fun begins when we reach the edges of the Rurtalsperre Schwammenauel, the immense reservoir created by the damming of the Rur river.



Known alternately as Rur, Roer and Ruhr, this river eventually feeds into the Meuse at Roermond in the Netherlands, and is not to be confused with the Ruhrgebiet, the prominent northwest German industrial conurbation comprising a dozen interlocking cities. Here, we have some serious climbing to do under - or rather over - the watchful eye of the river.

This starts with a crunching ascent into Rohren, which crests at 55km from home and is, realistically, the toughest climb of the day, officially 2,6km @ 7,7% but with some false flat at the end which tempers it somewhat - the first half averages 10%, so a pretty savage ascent which could serve as the catalyst to break the breakaway up and set a real battle for the stage into action. It’s also in near perfect condition and is comparable to a few of the Ardennes climbs on the other side of the border, since we are now close to the Germanophone part of Belgium. We then pass through the village of Höfen, from which we descent into the beautiful, scenic old town of Monschau, one of Germany’s untapped gems, a local tourist hotspot and a strategically important point in the Battle of the Bulge, as it represented the northernmost extreme of the battleground - luckily surviving primarily intact.



From here we double back on ourselves and climb back toward Höfen - mainly because, as with Nöthener Tannen earlier in the stage, there are two roads between the two - the “Pillepalle-Variante”, the new main road, built in the days of cars and trucks, and the old “Pflaster-Variante”, 1,3km @ 9,0%, known as the Kierberg, then a flat run to the village of Höfen. And as the name “Pflaster-Variante” would suggest, this version - the one we’re climbing, of course - is cobbled.



Reaching a maximum gradient of 16%, this ascent crests with 46km remaining and the Classics men will be smiling some sick, sinister smiles by now as they’ll be well aware this is one for them. We crest the Kierberg and then swing to the right and descend back into the other side of Monschau, this time on the north of the river, for another climb, this time up to Imgenbroich. The official stats are not the most imposing, but the very first part of it is the toughest - 500m at 9,5%, max 14%, which are - of course - on cobbles.



After this the climb settles down and isn’t that imposing, but finishing with 39km remaining, it is perhaps a strong candidate to enable riders to make a bid for the stage if we have a large break contesting stage honours or if somebody fancies a tactical flier among the GC men if riders like Alaphilippe are still in contention aping his Tour run. After all, Deceuninck-Quick Step are likely to have some stepping stones up the road! After this we have a plateau into Simmerath, which hosts the final intermediate sprint at 34km from the line, before a slow meandering downwards into the Kalltal, which we emerge from via our final categorised climb of the day, the Kevelaerberg, a 1,3km @ 9% Ardennes-style dig out of the valley and onto the plateau, which starts with 300m at 11,5% just to spite the riders. God bless it. Cresting at 27km from the line, it’s the final real ascent that will prove a potential jumping-off point for a GC man, but there are some uncategorised ascents to come; starting almost immediately as after the flattening out at the summit of Kevelaerberg there is a second uncategorised ascent of around 1km at 5% at 24km from the line, before the majority of the remainder of the stage, running into Aachen, is downhill - punctuated by two short ascents, the Frackersberg (1,6km @ 4,3%, max 9%, at 15km from home) and Trierer Straße (900m @ 5%, at 8km from home).

However, most of that final 8km is dead straight so would favour a bunch behind, increasing the intrigue if the breakaway is contesting this - a rider will need quite a hefty advantage to get out of sight out of mind on this run-in, however there are a few corners in the final 1500m to tilt things back towards escapees on the streets of Aachen.



Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle to the French, is a border city close to the Dreilandecke between the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany, and for most travelling by train along routes in the area, will be the first (or last) German station visited. It is Germany’s westernmost city and one of its oldest, having been on the Roman side of the Limes, and having been a spa settlement during that era, before becoming the Imperial residence of Charlemagne, who commanded the construction of the city’s iconic cathedral, which was completed in the year 798 and still stands today; the great emperor’s remains were interred at the cathedral and remain there to this day. A number of renovations have been undertaken, but it remains the number one tourist attraction in the city, helped largely by a large number of pilgrims and its role as the church of coronation for Holy Roman Emperors to be crowned “King of the Germans”.



Aachen is also on the Benrather Line, which historically divided Low German and High German dialects, although its modern dialect bears more resemblance to the Ripuarian language spoken around Köln, and Lëtzebuergesch and similar Mosel-Franconian dialects. As a high religious centre it has also been a major source of manuscript production during the early Middle Ages, although its religious importance led to its downfall to a certain extent, with Spanish troops attacking the city and deposing all Protestants in the early 17th Century, which also led to the relocation of the coronations of Holy Roman Emperors to Frankfurt, then a role in the Thirty Years’ War, and then being ravaged by fire in 1656.

The city rebuilt itself as a destination, ostensibly as a spa town, but also because of a reputation for prostitution, a sharp decline for a city which had built its reputation on emperors and high religion. It was one of the cities of the short-lived Rheinische Republic, which was proclaimed in the city in 1923 during the French and Belgian occupation of the Ruhr in the inter-war years; this state was never recognised and promptly faded from relevance less than two years later, returning to the German ownership that everybody else thought it had had all along. It was highly damaged in World War II following a siege in September and October 1944, and despite the rebuilding of its historic centre, with the traditional architecture, the focus of the city has moved more toward the outlying areas of the city where it has become a technology hub. The city also claims to host the world’s first modern discotheque, with the Scotch Club having been opened in the 1950s.

I have located the stage finish in front of the historic Elisenbrunnen spa and hot springs, upon which much of the city’s original reputation was built.



Of Aachen’s many famous sons and daughters, I thought it worth paying a bit of tribute to Alfred “Fredy” Hirsch, a homosexual German Jewish athlete and youth leader who, due to having German extraction, and with a gift for persuasion, was able to assist thousands of Jewish children during the Nazi era, initially in Prague, and then in the Theresienstadt and, ultimately, Auschwitz concentration camps despite his being a prominent gay Jew making him an obvious target for persecution. He controlled exercise, discipline and hygiene to improve the health of children in the ghettos and camps and helped increase the survival rates significantly; he founded study and preparation sites to help children emigrate to Israel, built playgrounds, organised sporting events and acquired food parcels for the children he was responsible for overseeing in Auschwitz; his death is shrouded in mystery, having apparently ingested an overdose of barbiturates on the day the children in the ‘family camp’ that he had been running were scheduled to be gassed - theories include suicide (but with the question of how he acquired the barbiturates), execution by the camp guards (to prevent him rising against the planned executions), and execution by the Jewish doctors (to prevent him leading an uprising, which had been suggested by the Auschwitz resistance movement, and jeopardising the chances of survival of others in the camp).

Hirsch serves as a counterpart to some of Aachen’s less celebrated children, such as former SS Hauptsturmführer Hans Schwerte, and racial theorist and eugenicist Robert Ritter, who was tasked with establishing genealogical histories of the German gypsy population in the 1930s, and was the main author of the theories behind the Sterilisation Law of 1933, although the persecution was not limited to Roma and Sinti but also included a number of the Jenisch (or Yenish), an itinerant travelling community throughout German-speaking Europe and eastern France but of German origin. The Jenisch “white gypsies” received less persecution as they were not as immediately identifiable, but Ritter saw them, along with mixed-race gypsies, as more of a ‘threat’ to racial purity than the ‘racially pure’ Roma and Sinti, who he favoured segregation of rather than sterilisation or extermination of.

Although perhaps not as famous or as prominent as Hirsch, Adam Kuckhoff is perhaps a fitting name to sign off on a potted history of Aachen with; as a member of the Rote Kapelle (known as the Red Orchestra in English), he was a prominent resistance member and a socialist writer who was a collaborator of Arvid Harnack dating back to the very start of the Nazi regime, with the two writers and their wives Mildred (Harnack) and Greta (Kuckhoff) forming discussion groups to formulate and discuss anti-Nazi and post-Nazi plans and perspectives all the way back in 1933, and distributing pamphlets, writing articles and exposing activities of the Nazis initially from Berlin and subsequently from Prague, where he worked for underground news organisation Die innere Front. After an error on the part of the Soviet military, who were trying to reconnect with the socialist-minded Rote Kapelle, the addresses of members of the group were accidentally leaked to the Gestapo, and Kuckhoff was captured in 1942, sentenced to death in a show trial and, along with his collaborators, hanged from a meathook in the Plötzensee prison. A section of Sophienstraße in his hometown, which we use in the run-in of the stage, has been renamed Adam-Kuckhoff-Straße in his honour.

Presentations post-stage will be held in the city’s iconic Marktplatz, a traditional central square of the region with classical architecture and will serve as an excellent backdrop to what will hopefully have been a somewhat unpredictable day of racing.

 
Stage 13: Krefeld - Münster, 142km





GPM:
Longinusturm (cat.3) 1,1km @ 4,7%

On the final weekday stage of the race, we have a straightforward sprint stage, the last chance for the fast men, as we head northeastwards from Nordrhein-Westfalen and into Niedersachsen, where our race will conclude.



This relatively straightforward stage will both hopefully induce more aggressive racing in the preceding stage to Aachen, and allow a bit of respite to riders ahead of a potentially dramatic final weekend. The city of Krefeld itself is known for velvet and silk, but has long been usurped by its many neighbours in the Ruhrgebiet megalopolis, which it sits on the outer edge of. Being on the west of the Rhine, it doesn’t quite fit into that contiguous conurbation, but it is part of a network of outlying cities that aren’t part of the whole Duisburg-Essen-Gelsenkirchen-Oberhausen-Herne-Bochum-Dortmund axis, and its outlying district of Uerdingen almost bleeds into the southernmost suburbs of Duisburg. Under Napoleon it became a de facto capital of Ashkenaz I, with some 5.000 Jews settling in the city, but like most cities in Germany this population was butchered, on this occasion after being transported with no food or water to Latvia, where the survivors of the journey were shot in a forest. The city was later destroyed by British bombing raids, and in the post-war regeneration efforts became a centre for chemical manufacturing. This industrial and very clean, clinical backdrop that the city provided is perhaps a reason why it has become an electronic music centre, along with its proximity to Düsseldorf, one of the two main centres of the school of music that came to be known as Krautrock. While a number of its progeny have been comparatively recent additions, operating in the trance scene that hit its peak in the late 90s, with the Netherlands and Germany competing over supremacy, the most legendary is Ralf Hütter, keyboardist and lead vocalist behind arguably Germany’s most iconic contribution to modern popular music, the legendary Kraftwerk. It is Hütter that brings the band’s fixation with the sport of cycling - having taken up riding during the recording sessions of the band’s most celebrated album (which is in some lofty competition), Die Mensch-Maschine, he later took to being deposited from the tour bus between venues to cycle the rest of the distance, and his experiences as a hobby cyclist allayed to an obsession with the professional sport fed into their release of the iconic Tour de France single which, let’s face it, all of us know.

He’s not the only cyclist to come from Krefeld, though he is Germany’s favourite of them - the other being British track cyclist Philip Hindes, a two time Olympic gold medallist in the Team Sprint discipline (personally my least favourite track discipline, having neither the tactical element of the match sprint nor the grace and cohesion of the Team Pursuit), where he was used as a leadout for Jason Kenny and, originally, Chris Hoy, and later Callum Skinner. He has, however, achieved a level of notoriety for admitting to a British TV interviewer that he deliberately crashed in the Olympic final to provoke a restart, after he didn’t get away with the intended speed, with British Cycling blaming the fact that German is Hindes’ first language for the “misunderstanding” of his words. It remains one of the most controversial parts of Britain’s record haul in its home Olympics.



For the most part, this is a pan-flat stage which is primarily about avoiding too much disruption to the colossal agglomeration of built-up areas that characterise the area, since we are deep in Germany’s industrial heartlands, and the beating heart of its economy. As a result, we head directly north from Krefeld to avoid Moers, and into Kamp-Lintfort, perhaps best known as the birthplace of one of the minor members of the RAF (on this occasion meaning the Rote Armee Fraktion and better known outside of Germany as the Baader-Meinhof Gang, not the Royal Air Force), Brigitte Asdonk. She was originally part of Horst Mahler’s “Commando”, but after playing a role in breaking Andreas Baader out of prison in 1970, she travelled to Jordan to train in guerrilla tactics with the PFLP and PLO, remaining in the Baader commando until 1973, after which she spent nine years in prison for a string of bank robberies and other terrorism-related offences; being primarily used in the bank robberies and not in the assassinations, kidnappings and shootouts side of the RAF, she has become something of a historical footnote; this is also perhaps why she was able to survive, seeing as many of her fellow faction members died either under a kill-or-be-killed philosophy or in prison, via a series of suicides which, other than Holger Meins, who died of starvation on hunger strike, are the subject of debate and conspiracy theories years after the fact.

Our next stop-off is Wesel, which hosts the first intermediate sprint. A port on the Rhine, it has changed hands between the Netherlands, Spain (in the era of the Habsburg Netherlands) and the varying predecessor states of Germany on multiple occasions in its history; it was even held briefly by France after Napoleon, but was passed to Prussia after Napoleon’s defeat by the British at Waterloo. It was the site of the largest airborne landings of World War II, after Allied forces had already assaulted the city with ten-tonne bombs and destroyed some 97% of its structures. It became something of a ghost town, with its population reducing by over 90% accordingly, but it has recovered and then some, with a population of some 60.000 now. Its history is strong and far-reaching - one of the sons of the city is Peter Minuit, who founded New Amsterdam and, by proxy, New York City, but it is also the home of Konrad Duden, whose prescriptive dictionaries and linguistic guides have become THE definitive guide to the German language, with the Duden essentially having the authoritative final say on any German linguistic matter.



We then have two intermediate sprints within 15km of one another, first in the small town of Velen, and then in the larger town of Coesfeld. I’m anticipating these will be non-events as with this being the last day for the sprinters, any fast men that remain will want to make this a day for themselves, so unless there is a tense battle for the points jersey, these will just be rolled over by the breakaway. Coesfeld is famous for its Coesfeld Cross, arguably the most prominent example, and certainly the largest example of its type, of the Forked Cross, a style that arose under the influence of the mystics in the late Middle Ages, and is particularly common in the Rhineland area. The veneration of the Coesfeld Cross has been a tradition since the 14th Century although a replica has now taken on the role due to wear and tear of the original wooden artefact.

“Libertine, you’re rambling again… do we really need to know about 1970s terrorists or Catholic pilgrimage sites?” Good point. But I guess that’s a product of flat stages - you need to have something to talk about, so I may as well give Carlton Kirby some pointers before the stage begins. Don’t tell me you wouldn’t be waiting to see how he managed to make some contrived segue out of the names of various Baader-Meinhof Gang members and members of the peloton. Luckily, the stage then moves into the Hengwehr und Hanloer Mark, a small wooded hilly area that overlooks the town of Nottuln, which is characterised by the Longinusturm, a 32m limestone observation tower on the Westerberg summit, which was then reappropriated as a television tower after the war.



This climb is barely worth categorisation this far into the race, being 1100m at a shade under 5%, but it’s the only ascent in the stage of any real relevance, and so I have awarded cat.3 points to it. Like the metas volantes, it’s unlikely that the péloton will really see any relevance in going after these points, and certainly I doubt any KOM candidate is going to be going into the break of the day on a day such as this, with just the one cat.3 climb as reward - with a sprint the likely outcome there will likely only be a small break. Luckily, the Hengwehr region may be where the chase of the break is taken up in earnest which might allow the KOM to take the climb from the péloton, with only just over 20km remaining from the summit.

Realistically however, the bunch is going to let those breakaways hang out there as long as they can to try to prevent any counter-attacks from fresh athletes on the way in to Münster, which hosts the stage finish. After all, it’s a city which loves cycling.



Münster is one of Germany’s foremost university cities, with over 1/5 the city’s population - which exceeds 300.000 - being students. It dates back to the times of Charlemagne, and was a leading member of the Hanseatic League. It was the site of an Anabaptist rebellion in the 16th Century, and one of the sites of the signing of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. More recently, however, it has become one of the most livable cities in the world of its size, and has become Germany’s unofficial “bike capital” - in much the same way as in other countries cities with significant student presence have become very bicycle-friendly, Münster has adopted that role in Germany. In fact, as of 2007, vehicle transportation has fallen behind bicycle use, thanks to an extensive network of bike paths and rental services, patterned after Copenhagen. It is the home of the most successful athlete of the first modern Olympiad, Carl Schuhmann, who won four gold medals in gymnastics and wrestling, and theatrical icon of song and act, Ute Lemper, but the bicycle heritage is largely why I chose it here. And it also hosts its own race, the Münsterland Giro, which is a late season sprinter’s one-day race.



Taking place on the Tag der Deutschen Einheit, the inaugural Münsterland Giro, sponsored by Sparkassen who also sponsor a similar race near Bochum, was effectively a successor to the old border-hopping Groningen-Münster race which had been defunct after 2004, and the parcours of which had been used for a stage of the 2002 Giro d’Italia, won by Mario Cipollini because of course it was because it was 2002. Here's some brief coverage of the 2018 edition, which was won by Max Walscheid.

Occasionally, it hasn’t been a field sprint - in 2006’s inaugural edition, Paul Martens held off the bunch, Aleksejs Saramotins did the same in 2009, Joost van Leijen won a two-up sprint in 2010, and Jos van Emden won from a five man break in 2013 - but generally this is one that is won by the fast men, with André Greipel and Marcel Kittel both two-time winners, and John Degenkolb, Sam Bennett and Tom Boonen also on the winner’s list. We are using the same finale as the Münsterland Giro, so I expect the same outcome: a field sprint. After all, there’s a big GC-relevant finale to come at the weekend, so the riders can be forgiven for having a quiet day here.
 
Reactions: F_Cance
Jul 28, 2019
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Deutschland Tour
Stage 1: Berlin - Halle, 177 km


The Deutchsland Tour/Tour of Germany has been rebooted, this time with a 9 day-race, built around about the same format as earlier. In this version they have chosen to stay entirely within the borders of Germany, which means none mountain stages in Austria like the last version of the race.

Stage 1 starts in the capital of Berlin, and moves in a southwestern direction. The stage is almost completely flat without any categorized climbs, which means that this will most likely be a stage for the sprinters. The stage finish is in Halle, the largest city of Saxony-Anhalt.

Map:

I really like that you are keeping it in Germany, back then when the Deutschland Tour was at its peak (2005-2008) each and every edition the toughest and most decisive mountain stage was held in Austria, was really anticlimatic in front of very few spectators along the road on those final ascends, understandably the Austrians weren't backing the race as it would have been in Germany.
I think the Austrian region Tirol was a main sponsor of the race so probably that was the reason behind it. It's not like there are no difficult ascends in Germany as you guys are demonstrating.

In fact before 2005 the DT was a 7 day race, and while is was prolonged to 9 days the for the last 4 editions the amount raced in Germany actually remained about the same, and the most arguably most exiciting stage was moved abroad...
 
Salt Lake City World Championship Road Race




15 laps of this circuit would mean a length of 253 kilometers and total climbing of 6.795 meters. I would watch that. Maybe 14 laps would be enough actually, especially considering the altitude.

The roads are huge, as you would expect from an American town.

Hill 1 (last 1,5 km at 9,3%):



Hill 2 (0,7 km at 12,3%):




The last obstacle is a short climb up Capitol Hill.



 
Reactions: Red Rick
Nice job Fauniera, I also have a SLC WC route in my folder with potential WC routes.
That one has the climb to Capitol Hill from the Western side (Woods won on that uphill finish in 2015) as the steep climb of the circuit.
I also had the idea of using the SLC Olympics as a theme, so there would be a start in Park City, Guardsman Pass right at the start and then downhill/false flat before entering the circuit.
 
Apr 27, 2017
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I also designed a World Championship RR in SLC, with the part in Arlington Heights/Capitol Hills being nearly identical...

By the way, I'm back after a long break (partially because password reset did not work until the new forum was implemented). University will take me some time, as do some other interests, but maybe I'll post another race one day (I have quite some races stored).
 
Reactions: Libertine Seguros
Stage 14: Paderborn - Sankt Andreasberg, 219km





GPM:
Hopfenberg (cat.3) 1,6km @ 6,8%
Sternplatz (cat.3) 6,7km @ 4,3%
Hahnenklee (cat.2) 4,2km @ 6,3%
Torfhaus (cat.1) 9,8km @ 5,1%
Stieglitzecke (cat.2) 7,6km @ 4,7%
Sankt Andreasberg (cat.3) 2,0km @ 7,5%
Sankt Andreasberg (cat.3) 2,0km @ 7,5%

The final weekend in Germany begins with this, our final road stage and the final chance for the non-TT-biased riders to make a difference. We're now up in the Harz mountains, so it's not exactly going to be easy for the climbers to make this matter in the same way as they might have done in the Steinplatte or Götschen stages. They may have to get creative and play do-or-die here, because with an ITT to come, yes they may pay for efforts today in the TT, but if they've got a Tom Dumoulin or a Primož Roglič breathing down their neck, they're going to need to take more time, and there's plenty of opportunity afforded by this final road stage, a long medium mountain stage through Germany's northernmost mountain range.



We begin, after a short transfer across the flat northern expanses of Nordrhein-Westfalen, in the city of Paderborn, whose name reflects its role as the source of the Pader, a short tributary of the Lippe. Founded by Charlemagne, it is also the final resting place of the remains of Saint Liborius of Le Mans. It has largely held a quiet existence, being an independent city-state until being subsumed into Prussia in the early 19th Century, but it was one of the most extensively bombed cities during the Allied campaigns against north Germany in 1944, which led to much of the city being destroyed and subsequently rebuilt in the late 1940s and early 1950s. The rebuilt city has become a university hub - some 10% of its population are students - as well as an electronics centre for Germany, with a number of major electronic and computing companies retaining premises in the city; one of these, Nixdorf, maintains the largest computer museum in the world in the city. Paderborn's "sister city" status with Le Mans, due to the shared tradition of Saint Liborius, is regarded as the earliest known forerunner to the "twin city" system introduced in the mid-20th century; though the cities were officially twinned in 1967, they had operated a relationship since the 9th Century. The city also gives its name to a language-learning method whereby a language with simple, transparent grammatical structure is first taught, and then shortly afterwards a further more complex language is added, taking advantage of the learner now being able to better understand grammatical constructs.

Paderborn has pretty limited cycling heritage - in fact it has never, not once, hosted the Deutschland Tour in its various incarnations; however it did briefly hold a national calendar women's one day race in the early 2000s. The only famous rider to come out of the city is Jasmin Duehrer, née Glässer (later amended to Glaesser for simplicity), whose family relocated to Canada when she was eight years old; Jasmin was a former runner and figure skater who took up cycling after an injury, and quickly became very good at it; choosing to represent her adoptive homeland of Canada over her birth country, she joined the country's Team Pursuit squad, and won the Pan-American Games in 2011, as well as a World Championships bronze a year later. She added a silver in the Points race to this, before replicating the pursuit bronze in the Olympics in London. Specialising in the ITT on the road, but the endurance events on the track, she has since racked up the medals in these favoured formats, winning a total to date of two silver and two bronze medals at the Worlds in the points race, and three bronze and two silver medals at the Worlds in the team pursuit - to add to also collecting another Olympic bronze in Rio. She also has a Pan-American road race gold, and as part of a road career which takes in TIBCO, Optum, Rally and most recently Kristin Armstrong's Twenty20 team, she's also competed in several of the biggest women's races, although all of her best results are concentrated in the North American scene and the success of Tara Whitten and Clara Hughes has prevented her from being able to represent the maple leaf at the Road Worlds to date.



This isn't the kind of road stage that Jasmin would like, though. Notwithstanding that its 219km length would be a massive outlier in women's cycling, this is not the kind of terrain over which she has made her name. Instead, we have a long intermediate stage which finishes on an uphill rise. The early parts of the stage are bumpy but not enough to justify any GPM points - including a tricky descent into the spa town of Bad Driburg, which hosts the Bilster Berg race circuit, a private motor facility along similar lines to the Ascari Race Resort in Spain. Shortly after this we settle into valley roads as we head toward the town of Höxter, a chocolate-box town which sits on the border between the Länder of Nordrhein-Westfalen and Niedersachsen, our final Land for the race, having passed through Berlin, Brandenburg, Sachsen, Thüringen, Hessen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Baden-Württemberg, Bayern, Nordrhein-Westfalen and now finally Niedersachsen.

Niedersachsen is a relatively cycling-supportive area; in addition to regularly bringing in the DeutschlandTour into cities like Hannover, Wolfsburg, Braunschweig, Osnabrück, Bielefeld, and hosting stages into the city-Länder of Bremen and Hamburg, it hosted its own race, the Niedersachsen-Rundfahrt, from 1977 to 2005. Originally this was an 11- or 12-stage monstrosity including some cobbled pain in the Lüneburger Heide, some picturesque medium mountains in the Harz and a lot of hard flat and fast racing in the plains of the north. It was a favourite race of the Ostbloc amateurs, and for this reason a number of winners in the race’s formative years are top amateurs from the East - once they had got a grip on the race with Vyacheslav Dedionov’s win in 1980, only two of the next 10 editions would be won by somebody not from a Communist country - Toon van der Steen in 1982 and Helmut Wechselberger in 1990. Elsewise, it was all about the big, big powerhouses of the East, most notably Olaf Ludwig in 1981, Sasha Zinoviev in 1984 and Uwe Ampler in 1985. Towards the Wende, the race’s calendar slot ceased to be as attractive to the Eastern Bloc teams, and so it was often used for their B-squads. Although after 1990, the old order had ceased to be, the type of riders that won the race didn’t change, with Lubor Tesař winning for the not-yet-separated Czechoslovakia, before a parade of other ex-DDR and former Eastern Bloc country names such as Bert Dietz, Jens Voigt and Pavel Padrnos. Later, however, as this nostalgic attachment to the race among the former east dissipated, the race shrunk in size and stature, and the routes became increasingly less varied; by the time the race spluttered to a halt in 2007 it was an absolute mercy killing, with the race having become a hideously uncompetitive, tedious festival of bonus seconds; across the last two editions, all ten stages finished in sprints, of which Alessandro Petacchi won 8 - all 5 in 2006, believe it or not.

My stage here is far more designed around encapsulating what was good about the Niedersachsen-Rundfahrt, however, as after all this is a weekend stage and the climactic final road stage, so I have chosen to forgo these tedious sprint editions, and focus on the tricky Harz mountain stages of the earlier editions. And that means we need to head for the range, so it’s a long rolling stretch to our first intermediate sprint in Einbeck before anything of note happens. Einbeck is the hometown, or at least the birthplace, of Emil Reinecke, one of the more interesting characters in German cycling history; he was a former German cyclocross champion in the early 1950s, and competed alongside his DDR compatriots in the Unified team for the early 1950s; he chose, however, in 1955, when the two were split in sporting terms, to represent the DDR, an almost unique case and certainly among riders as prominent as he was. He qualified for the DDR national team to compete in the Peace Race in 1955 (before the BRD chose to take part), however the awards that he won as part of the team that backed Gustav-Adolf Schur to the DDR’s first ever triumph in the race were later rescinded when, upon learning that he would not be able to turn professional while continuing to represent East Germany, he returned home to the West. Although he was not an especially distinguished pro, he raced a number of major classics and entered the 1960 Tour de France (connections to him were also one of the reasons cited by the DDR in suspecting Klaus Ampler would defect after the construction of the wall in 1961); after retirement he worked for Continental for several decades, and died at the age of 78 in 2011. His results may make him something of a footnote in German cycling history, but his nation-switching history and his role in Täve’s successes make him worth remembering.



Shortly after the intermediate sprint we have our first categorised climb of the day, a little puncheur rise called the Hopfenberg, outside Bad Gandesheim. From here we traverse the foothills until the town of Seesen, whereupon things get a lot more interesting, for here we start to climb up onto the plateau, upon which Clausthal-Zellerfeld stands. We have seen the city of Clausthal-Zellerfeld on a number of previous occasions in the thread, mainly due to its hosting Germany’s northernmost ski facilities, but on this particular day we aren’t going into the city itself. We arrive on the plateau by climbing the easier western side of Sternplatz, an ascent of around 7km at 4% which serves as a decent warmup for the riders given we’re over 100km into the day at this stage anyway. The steep and technical descent - which gets up to 15% max - into the Lautenthal leads to a secondary climb of Hahnenklee, a well-known ascent which includes some steep ramps within an overall unthreatening-looking statistical difficulty, climbing up to the base of the Bockswiese ski facilities through scenic forest.



From here we bypass the city of Clausthal-Zellerfeld and instead go over the uncategorised Auerhahn summit, before a gradual and unthreatening descent into Goslar, where the second intermediate sprint takes place. At 63km to go, I don’t expect too much action will have taken place to this point, so this might be the last chance for the points competition to be contested before things hot up in the general classification. Goslar is a beautiful city whose old town is inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the neighbouring mines of Rammelsberg. A historic mining town whose mined metals have been found all across Europe in prehistoric times, the city rose to become an important city of industry, Goslar has become the gateway to the Harz, at least from the former BRD side, and is also renowned for its cobbled and traditional architecture which have lent it a reputation as one of Germany’s most beautiful cities.



After a little bit of rolling terrain around the city and the foothills of the Harz Mountains, therefore, we head through Bad Harzburg (home of controversial colonist and Social Darwinist Karl Peters), hit the biggest challenge of the day, and the final cat.1 ascent of the race, the climb to Torfhaus, on the shoulder of Brocken. This may be a borderline cat.1 kind of climb, at least in other races, but I think it just about scrapes cat.1 in this race at least, given that I have awarded the same categorisation to climbs like Bretterschachten. It’s effectively 7km at just over 6%, then a couple of false flat kilometres, then a final kilometre averaging over 8%, so it’s a cat.2 climb with a bit of a sting in the tail, effectively. That sting in the tail comes with 42km remaining to the line, of which pretty much none whatsoever is flat, and so this is where the desperation moves should begin. Although there is a pretty horrendous ramp up to 16% very early in the climb, that may also tempt riders to try things if they are really desperate, or just need to salvage something from the race. After all, how often have we seen riders pull something out of the bag late in a race they had otherwise flunked (Quintana and Nibali winning stages in the Alps in the 2019 Tour, for example)?

However, while Torfhaus does make a very useful lead-in summit for a stage to finish at Wurmberg or Brocken, here we aren’t looking to do that, instead making for a tough medium mountain finale in much the same way as I have done on a couple of occasions before, such as Stage 20 of my 5th (and in my opinion best) Vuelta or Stage 18 of my experimental Tour. As a result, therefore, there are three further categorised climbs crammed into the final 40km, after the double summit of Torfhaus, which is a popular Aussichtspunkt, or Mirador, looking out over the plains of northern Germany to the north, across the Harz to the west and south, and up at the mighty summit of Brocken to the east.



From here we descend what is actually the more ‘traditional’ climbing side of the Torfhaus ascent, into Altenau, which enables us to take a tougher than usual route up to Sonnenberg im Harz. I have also placed the final intermediate sprint in Altenau, in the hope of further incentivising aggression with bonus seconds available, so that even if they then sit up and rejoin the group, there is at least some reason for a bit of earlier aggression among the ‘bigs’. The section from around 8km to the finish of this profile shows the latter part, but we have a bit more of a serious ascent beforehand than the false flats that run from Riefensbeek to the summit here; we effectively climb a steep couple of kilometres, then it flattens out as we join the road from Clausthal-Zellerfeld, which in turn joins that profile at the 8km mark. The kilometre at 8,5% is the important part, therefore, you would say (I have placed the GPM points at the first of the double summits), and the points are given out at 26km from home, so this is a good platform to work from too. After a couple of kilometres’ descent, we pass the most important sporting facility in the region: the reconstructed and upgraded biathlon facilities.



Germany’s northernmost training centre for Nordic sports, the Clausthal-Zellerfeld/Sonnenberg facilities have served as a breeding ground for many of the country’s best-loved stars in its’ best-loved winter sport. After all, Germany loves biathlon, because Germany is a sensible country. Perhaps the best known of these is Arnd Peiffer, derided early in his career as a “north German jerk” for a couple of high profile lapses of concentration in relays, but who was also one of Germany’s most promising young athletes for years, racking up medals at the World Championships as far back as 2011 where he was dicing on an equal footing with future destroyer Martin Fourcade, Tarjei Bø and Emil Hegle Svendsen, before a couple of lean years as the team went through a transition. He has made up for lost time, however; that surprise World Championship gold in 2011 was his last major individual title for seven years, but as he hit his late 20s and early 30s, experience told, and he was able to take gold in the sprint in the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics in 2018, following that with gold in the World Championships in the oldest and truest (but also most marginalised in the present calendar) discipline, the 20km Individual - which he then publicly defended when it was mooted that the longest form of the race was becoming obsolete - citing that it throws out the most surprise results and also that seeing as the genesis of the sport is in endurance, it is counterproductive to then erase the discipline that requires the most endurance. Alongside his individual titles, he has a formidable record as part of Germany’s relay, where he has settled on leg 3; he has one gold, two silver and three bronze medals from the World Championships, and a silver and a bronze from the Olympics, in the traditional relay, to go with two gold, three silver and two bronze in the Mixed Relay at the World Championships. The facilities are also the breeding ground of Daniel Böhm, a career fringe athlete who hit a phenomenal peak of shooting in late 2013, hitting 20/20 race after race after race and earning himself an unexpected place in the Olympic relay team for Sochi, due to regular leg 2 athlete Andi Birnbacher being injured. He quickly established himself as a vital relay athlete due to his reliability, and thereby was a key part of the Olympic silver in Sochi and the subsequent World Championships gold a year later. However, with the breakthroughs of Benedikt Doll and Johannes Kühn he became surplus to requirements after this and faded from the scene.

On the women’s side of the sport, the most prominent recent graduate of the Clausthal-Zellerfeld facilities is Franziska Hildebrand, who has become one of the stalwarts of the German women’s team over the last decade. Like Maren Hammerschmidt, Franzi has a twin sister who was previously a biathlete, named Stefanie, but who gave up the sport in 2012, shortly after Franzi’s breakthrough. Hildebrand was a successful junior athlete but at a time when Germany dominated the women’s side of the sport; she therefore was condemned to IBU Cup limbo for a while, where she eventually won the competition outright in 2010-11. This led to her being selected for the first trimester of the World Cup the following season, with the expectation that she, Nadine Horchler and Caro Hennecke would rotate the final slot in the team; however, Hildebrand confounded expectations with a 19/20 shoot in her first race to finish in the top 6, and was quickly brought into the central fold of the team. At the time, her shooting-biased skillset was a rarity among a German team built around the likes of Magdalena Neuner, Miriam Gössner and Tina Bachmann, all of whom were fast but profligate, and so Hildebrand became a key relay athlete as a result. She has, over time, developed her skiing to such point as to be highly competitive on the World Cup, although her continual problem of not having a killer finish or being able to up the pace on the final lap meant it took her over three years to achieve her first World Cup podium. With her being somewhat distant from the Bavarian-based Ruhpolding and Garmisch groups, she has seemed like something of an outsider in the German team, an impression not helped by her appearing to collect awards as the only one of the relay quartet not dressed in traditional Bavarian clothing, or criticising some of the selection policies in recent years, however she has acquired two individual and fourteen relay victories in the World Cup over a career where she has essentially acquired the role of being the glue that holds the team together; a consistent bank of points that takes the pressure off more volatile athletes. She has four medals from the World Championships (two gold, one silver, one bronze), all in relays, and has finished in the top 5 of the overall World Cup twice - not bad for somebody who has only been able to acquire 9 podiums from 178 individual starts - however she has a phenomenal rate of 161 points finishes out of those 178 starts.

Oh yes, cycling. That’s right. I’m here to talk about cycling. Anyway: we descend through the top edge of the day’s finishing town, Sankt Andreasberg, and join a short circuit which closes the stage off. The circuit is very short for a penultimate stage of a two week race, but to be honest, I’m not about the sentimentality; the circuit is only 8km in length so there is definitely the possibility that the autobus gets pulled from the course for being lapped here: and if they are that far back, they will be. There’s only an ITT tomorrow, so we can always just shorten the startlist for the final day, why not? This enables us to have a final loop that is as un-conducive to a bunch finish as possible, with just under two laps of the 8km circuit which descends through and below Sankt Andreasberg before turning around to head uphill through the town to the finish at the Rodelbahn, or the luge track. We also finish by taking the steepest street in the region before a left to finish at the Rodelbahn, which has a maximum gradient of 18%.



This does effectively give us a 3,5km @ 5% climb on the final circuit, but the first half of that is false flat, as the final 1500m average almost 9%, the final kilometre being up above 10%, so climbing this twice - at 8km remaining and at the finish - opens up some serious possibilities for time gain and loss after two weeks of racing. It should be fascinating. Sankt Andreasberg is interestingly much younger than the other settlements that we have passed through in the Harz - Goslar, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Sonnenberg im Harz, Bad Harzburg and so on - having come into being in the 1400s at the discovery of precious metal, and having developed around the silver mining industry. Sankt Andreasberg is a home of alpine skiing in the region, with its own small slopes, and it also has a network of Loipe which are connected to the Sonnenberg biathlon venue. Increased urbanisation of the German population means that the permanent population of the town is in decline, although Sankt Andreasberg has been able to compensate this with an increase in tourism around its suitability as a winter getaway for almost all of the northern half of Germany, and its reputation as a beauty spot and a suitable gateway to Brocken since the Wiedervereinigung. In fact, Sankt Andreasberg hosted the finale of the last ever Niedersachsen-Rundfahrt stage not to end in a sprint, the final stage of the 2005 edition; a three-man breakaway settled it, with Aleksandr Kolobnev being dropped late on, and Mauricio Ardila and Stefan Schumacher making a deal over the finish, with the not-GC-relevant Ardila winning the stage and Schumacher taking the GC as a result, ahead of the Russian. Another group of six came in at 22 seconds back, and the bunch was splintered all over the road. I thought this would be a much more selective finale than a final MTF on the false flat slopes of Brocken, where pretty much all the action would be in the last 1500m, or the neighbouring Wurmberg (although at 4,3km @ 8,2% on the important part and backing straight off of Torfhaus it might’ve worked), and we would get some better racing from further out with the Sankt Andreasberg circuit than with a final MTF. And it’s a pretty scenic place to finish up, no?

 
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Stage 15: Hildesheim - Hannover, 49,0km (ITT)





The climactic final stage of the Deutschlandtour is a proper, old-fashioned test against the clock: 50km or so in length, and completely pan-flat, so it’s a pure, pure power test as we move through some of northern Germany’s beloved cultural spots.



The stage begins in the scenic, historic pedestrianised centre of Hildesheim, a city of just over 100.000 inhabitants at the southern edge of Niedersachsen. One of the oldest cities in northern Germany, it was founded in the Dark Ages, and ascended to become a seat of a bishopric in the 9th century. Swiftly becoming a market town, the present Marktplatz (seen in the photograph above) was built in the 13th century to account for the increased spatial requirements of the city as it grew apace, especially after joining the Hanseatic League in 1367. It was overshadowed over time, between the Reformation and its eventually being subsumed into the Kingdom of Hannover, and subsequently Prussia, following the Napoleonic Wars, by its larger neighbour 30km to the north, however, and its growth was also stunted by heavy bombing late in World War II - primarily to demoralise the population, as it was acknowledged by the Allies to have little military significance - which levelled the medieval city centre. Most of the major churches were rebuilt in the original style, and as glasnost’ begat perestroika and paved the way for reunification, many of the hastily-built concrete pre-fabricated buildings that had been constructed to house the population post-war were replaced by buildings more in keeping with the city’s original style. We do start a few blocks to the east of perhaps the most famous landmark of the city, however, which is the UNESCO-inscribed church of St. Michael, although many other churches in the city are either UNESCO World Heritage sites, or are on the shortlist to be added to the list of same.



Hildesheim also has an interesting cultural history in terms of its sons and daughters. Erich Pommer, a Hildesheimer, is one of German cinema’s most influential figures, as a producer and executive responsible for a number of Germany’s most fabled early cinematic works, including Fritz Lang’s greatest works. Metropolis, Der blaue Engel, Faust, Das Cabinet des Dr Caligari, Doctor Mabuse, they’re all on Pommer’s résumé. The film industry also owes the city a debt for giving it the actress and model Diane Kruger. Music, however, has fared much less well for the contributions of Hildesheim - its most well-known children are the Schenker brothers, responsible for the execrable hair-metal band Scorpions - but more on them later (sadly). Instead, we should talk about a man who has become arguably the most famous of all of those to be associated with the city - Hildesheim was where the industrialist Oskar Schindler chose to make his home after the end of World War II.

Of course, Schindler has been immortalised in cinema by Steven Spielberg, and we are long since at the stage where Schindler is by far the most famous of the Righteous Among the Nations, his fame exceeding that of, say, Raoul Wallenberg, Ángel Sanz Briz or Giorgio Perlasca whose achievements would appear to exceed Schindler’s in terms of sheer numbers saved, and it is also true to say that there has been a level of re-appraisal of his philanthropy as a result of this; it is definitely worth acknowledging that Schindler’s work began due to his need to keep his enamelware factory operational rather than as a purely altruistic endeavour, and indeed it was only from 1943 onwards, after he witnessed the liquidation of the Kraków ghetto in which many of his workers lived, that he switched fully from protecting the Jews in his factory to protect business interests, to protecting them with the explicit aim of saving their lives. However, the sheer lengths to which he went and the success with which he protected the Jews on his ‘list’ mean that he certainly merits esteem for the activities he carried out. Indeed, after the failure of his post-war business ventures and the break-up of his marriage, things in fact came full circle and the legendary philanthropist found himself destitute and reliant on the charity of Schindlerjuden to survive. In the end, following his death, his body was transferred to Israel and he was interred at Mount Zion; having become a spy for the Abwehr in 1936 and joined the NSDAP in 1939, he is therefore the sole individual honoured by a Mount Zion burial who was also a member of the Nazi party.



Because the main road north to Hannover from Hildesheim is a motorway (and also because I wanted the TT to be around 50km long) we detour northeastward slightly, via Harsum to Algermissen, before heading due west to Sarstedt, which was the hometown of the Schenker brothers (Rudolf was born in Hildesheim, Michael in Sarstedt) mentioned above. Sarstedt is also the hometown of Marianne Bachmeier, who committed the best-known act of vigilante justice in modern German history, smuggling a firearm into a courtroom and shooting the man accused of murdering her daughter. Sarstedt also appears several times in the works of Günter Grass as a fictionalised, idealised version of itself that characters aspire to or long for, much as the mythical cup of coffee in Huesca characterised Orwell’s Spanish works. We then head through Laatzen into Hannover itself, where the race will finish. This city of just over half a million is Germany’s 13th-largest, and is the capital of Niedersachsen as well as the largest city in northern Germany that does not have its own independent Land. Since reunification it has been an important transport hub, falling on both latitudinal and longitudinal mainlines of both rail and road, and it has held a role as an important trade hub going back to the days of the Hanseatic League, serving as the League’s access point to the Harz mountain’s ore and precious metal, and as a second route to the Ruhrgebiet other than the Rhine. The line of succession of the Prince-Electors of the Hanover city-state during the Holy Roman Empire eventually, by means of a long line of marriage diplomacy as was often the case among royal families at the time, begat the current British Royal Family, although the fact that the Hanoverian laws dictated male succession only means that the lines diverge at the point at which Queen Victoria of Great Britain acceded to the throne. William IV’s brother Ernest Augustus therefore became King of Hanover while Victoria became Queen of Great Britain, and this impasse continued until Prussia annexed Hanover 30 years later, though the connection to the industrial might of Prussia saw rapid expansion of the city in the subsequent period.

Hannover saw 90% of its city centre destroyed in bombing raids during World War II; unfortunately for the city, it is difficult to maintain such a role as a transport and trade hub without making oneself a natural target of military significance during a war effort; unlike most German cities, Hannover elected not to rebuild the Aegidienkirche, and instead, much as with the gate in Hiroshima or the ghost town of Belchite, to leave the ruins standing as a memorial. It is also a city which has a long cycling history; first hosting the national tour in 1927, in the Großer Opelpreis days, when Richard Rösch won a stage in the city in the 11th race of a 15-race series, which was the format the race took at that time. It returned as a stage start in 1931 and as a finish in 1937, 1938 and 1939, with Emil Kijewski winning twice in the city in the pre-war incarnation of the Deutschlandtour. In the post-war incarnation, it was a stage host in 1949, before hosting both start and finish of the race a year later, a role it retained in 1951 also, before reverting to a standard stage host in the final edition of the first post-war version of the race, when Jean Kirchen, great uncle of Kim, won a lengthy ITT. Peter Post won the stage to Hannover in 1962 which underpinned his GC victory, before the race died once more; the 80s incarnation of the race didn’t use Hannover as a host at all, but in 2000 the city was back - just that this time it wasn’t as part of the Deutschland Tour but instead as part of the now ailing Peace Race, with Steffen Wesemann taking the win in the city as part of his bid to take the record for the most Peace Race wins, even though ultimately his 5 during an era where the race was really spluttering to a halt don’t really compare even remotely to Szurkowski’s four when it was the biggest race in the Second World. In 2001 it returned to the Deutschlandtour with a further sprint, won by Tom Steels, with two more editions of the Peace Race - the final ever editions, in 2004 and 2006 - appearing on the streets of the city, before a final hurrah as a bike race host, when Gerald Ciolek won the final stage of the 2007 Deutschlandtour in town. The city will host the départ of the 2019 Deutschlandtour, however, so it will return shortly…



We arrive in Hannover from the south, on Hildesheimer Straße, before turning left to avoid duplication of the route with tramlines, thus bringing us onto the shores of the Maschsee, a 78-acre artificial lake that sits alongside the river Leine, on which Hannover was built, and serves as the base for a number of watersports, with Hannover being a regional and national centre for yachting, sailing, rowing and canoeing as a result. Immediately following this, we turn across the northern tip of the lake and pass the Niedersachsenstadion, for sponsorship reasons currently known as the HDI-Arena, a venue that hosted the football World Cup in 1974 and 2006, and serves as the home of Hannover 96, the city’s Bundesliga team, and then across Stadionbrücke, and along Lavesallee towards the Waterloo Denkmal, past the Markthalle to Aegidientorplatz, with its iconic architecture, before heading into the old town and finishing at Opernplatz where the Christmas market centres.



Hannover makes for a good place to finish the race, as a leading exhibition city and a very modern city that, with its tradition for cycling, has brought in major races in as recent a history as is possible within the oft-inconsistent history of (West) German cycling. It holds one of Europe’s largest spring festivals and its second biggest Oktoberfest (after the legendary Munich one, of course). It has an extensive cycle path network as it tries to establish itself as a city for cycling, and held from 1975 to 2011 a night race in the old town for amateurs, known as the “Nacht von Hannover” - therefore what better way to promote the city’s love of bikes than by hosting a cycling race? The city is also home to Henry Mayer, one of the earliest professional cyclists, who converted from football at the age of 21 to become a track sprint cyclist, which he continued for over 20 years, interrupted by World War I, winning his final national title in 1923 at the age of 45.



Mayer was succeeded by Willy Gottfried, another Hanoverian, who became a successful Six-Day racer in the interwar period, and Erich Möller, a former world champion in the derny race who also later organised races. He was the first president of the Verbandes Deutscher Radrennveranstalter post-war, however due to his having been a member of the NSDAP, he quickly had to resign this post as his history made organising many races untenable.

Of course, being a significantly-sized city, Hannover has given Germany a great number of its most beloved and/or reviled individuals, and as with many cities across Germany it has also given other countries some well-known names, such as, as mentioned, the British Hanoverian kings, and the influential American philosopher Hannah Arendt, who fled the country as a Jew and a socialist after imprisonment by the Gestapo. The important astronomer siblings Wilhelm and Caroline Herschel also called the city home, while Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz also settled in the city and died there. Culturally, the city also gives its name to an entire school of architecture which was established in the mid-19th century under the influence of Conrad Wilhelm Hase; several buildings in the style characterise the Hanoverian city centre, even if many are reconstructions following the extensive bombings of World War II. There is an alarming lack of history in the city for the creative arts, although a number of minor painters have been based there, and the legendary poetic translator August Wilhelm von Schlegel, whose work is important both linguistically and culturally and renowned as the best translations of Shakespeare into another language worldwide, was born in Hannover also. The playwright Frank Wedekind, who was important at the turn of the 20th Century, is a local, but music has fared particularly badly - as mentioned, the most famous sons of the city from a musical point of view are the execrable Scorpions, whose hideous power ballad “The Winds of Change” was inescapable in the wake of the Wende. It’s really come to something where you can’t actually decide if David Hasselhoff’s “I’veBeen Searching For Freedom” is actually a better record. And when the city’s musical heritage is actually improved by the Eurovision Song Contest - but somehow it is; Germany has long since been one of the under performers of the competition, but they hit on a recipe for success in 2010, selecting their entrant via a reality TV show, and then doing something extremely radical: at Eurovision, that festival of high camp, of bombastic stage shows and lunatic over-the-top productions, they decided that the best thing to do was to enter a singer with girl-next-door charm (Hannover’s own Lena Meyer-Landrut, who has gone on to become a major pop star across Germanophone Europe as a result), and forgo a stage show almost entirely, relying crucially on the fact that they had a good pop song, certainly by Eurovision standards. Certainly better than fricking Rock You Like A Hurricane, anyway. The city is also home to the dance producer Mousse T, whose infectious track Horny was one of the biggest dance tracks of 1998, and led to a follow up with none other than Tom Jones on vocals (a very strange period in the durable Welshman’s career!). More credibly, there is Oliver Huntemann, who was one of the pioneers of acid house and modern techno in Germany, and has worked with the likes of Depeche Mode and Sven Väth.

Elsewhere, there are plenty of sportspeople to call the city home. Many are footballers, as you might expect, and I’ve enumerated the early cycling history of the city above, but there are some surprising outliers, such as Jan Wüstenfeld, a biathlete who would travel long distances to compete in his youth due to Hannover being so out of the way for all venues bar Clausthal-Zellerfeld (especially considering his development phase came prior to reunification so before Oberhof or Altenberg would have been accessible to him), and later married fellow biathlete Katja Beer; there’s also Dirk Werner, a former Porsche factory driver who has won the Grand-Am Sports Car Series in the GT class on multiple occasions before defecting to BMW in 2010; he has since raced in DTM and become an endurance specialist, having accrued a palmarès of strong results at the 24hr du Mans, the 24h Daytona, the 12hrs of Sebring, Petit Le Mans, the 24hr Spa and the 24h Nürburgring. The cycling heritage seems to be on the wane, though, and needs kickstarting again - in recent years only Michael Leben - a minor prospect whose best achievement was a stage of the Vuelta a Tenerife - and track specialist Leo Appelt have come from the city to success - and we should therefore kickstart inspiring a new generation of German cyclists by finishing our race here.
 
And now, something a bit different from my usual fare. I’m not going to run into dozens of paragraphs per stage for this one seeing as, essentially, topographically it is not the most riveting race you will ever find. But it will nevertheless have some discussion of geographic history and cycling background and is a bit of a departure for me but fits in with one of my wider targets.

If you look through the World Tour right now and through the most successful riders from the continent in history, South American cycling is for most fans synonymous realistically with one country and one country alone: Colombia. Cochise, Lucho, Parra, Mejía, Botero, Rincón, Pacho, Nairito, Urán, Gaviria, Chaves, the list goes on - and seemingly will continue to do so with the onset of the era of Egan Bernal and Iván Sosa. Sure, other nations have provided the occasional star - José Rujano from Venezuela, Murilo Fischer from Brazil, and now seemingly Richard Carapaz from Ecuador - but for the most part cycling’s history in South America is tied in to the continent’s north westernmost nation - and most of the continent’s oldest and most prestigious races are contested in Colombia, or in neighbouring Venezuela, especially in Táchira, a province close to the Colombian border with a strong cycling tradition and which hosted the World Championships in 1977.

However, while it has run since the early 1950s, Colombia does not hold South America’s oldest national tour, instead it is the race which holds that distinction which I have turned my attention to - the Vuelta del Uruguay, which held its first edition all the way back in 1939 and has been an annual occurrence since 1946 - meaning it has actually got through more editions than the Vuelta a España.



While the Vuelta del Uruguay might not be the oldest race in South America, no previous race had attempted to cover an entire nation’s geography (or at least claim to do so as many South American nations include vast tracts of either mountainous or rainforest terrain that is unrealistic for inclusion in a bike race with today’s logistics, let alone 80 years ago) - Uruguay was helped in that respect by its comparative lack of size - it is the second smallest sovereign nation in the continent, after Suriname - and also a source of pride for a country which owes its existence in a large part to, and often suffers from its comparison to, its larger and frequently-at-loggerheads neighbours, Brazil and Argentina; when General José Gervasio Artigas championed federalism for the Spanish-speaking part of the southern cone and came into dispute with the centralists in Buenos Aires, he rebelled and took the Banda Oriental, as the provinces that make up modern Uruguay were known then; Portugal then annexed the region, only to then have to cede them six years later when Brazil won its independence from its former colonial masters. Three years later, the Treinta y Tres Orientales - a revolutionary force led by Juan António Lavalleja and Manuel Oribe y Viana - attempted to secede from Brazil, backed by Argentine forces; the ensuing war was named the Guerra da Cisplatina, or Guerra del Brasil (the former name is preferred in Portuguese, referencing the Portuguese name for the Banda Oriental, the latter name preferred in Spanish). Eventually in 1828 the war petered out and with help from the United Kingdom, which wished to expand its economic power in the region as Spain’s control waned, the independent nation of Uruguay was born, ostensibly creating something of a buffer state between the rival Argentinians and Brazilians.

Despite having an older history than the Colombians and Venezuelans, however, Rioplatense cycling has never had the same impact on the European cycling world that its fellow Latin American nations have managed to have. Sure, we have had the likes of the Richeze brothers or the Haedos or Murilo Fischer competing in sprint events, but the most successful rioplatense cyclist in terms of their results in Europe didn’t even represent a South American nation, for it is Juan António Flecha, the veteran cobbled specialist who spent much of his career with Rabobank. And while the 2018 World Tour featured 18 Colombians spread over a range of teams, there are just 3 Argentinians (one of whom is a stagiare), and no Brazilians or Uruguayans. This year, for the first time, the Ecuadorians now outnumber the Argentinians, and in fact with that the entire rioplatense scene, with three World Tour riders to Argentina's 2 (which could reduce further with Sepulveda slated to leave Movistar in the offseason). In fact, Uruguay only has two riders at the Pro level in Europe - Mauri Moreira at Caja Rural, and at the Continental level, his former teammate Fabricio Ferrari at Efapel. That doesn’t mean that the country doesn’t have its own legends who require a bit of an introduction though - and we’ll meet a few of them on our way - or that they aren’t a prominent and serious part of racing along the southern cone and in Brazil, even in races like San Luís and San Juan when the bigger guns roll into town.



Part of this is likely to be because Uruguayan cycling, like Argentine cycling in the Pampas regions, tends to revolve a lot around sprinters, echelons and hard paces, with flat ITTs and occasional small hills as well as a few dirt roads, and not the more lucrative GC candidates and punchers that are generally produced by the higher altitude countries in the northwest. The biggest obstacle in this part of the world is not long and winding mountain roads but rather the wind, as long exposed swathes of countryside feature absolutely no respite from it and roads often have no real gutter, making for battles of attrition especially as the national Tour tends to run with small team sizes to prevent too much tight control over the race being exerted by strong squads. I’ve tried to blend this with the small collection of available hills to make a tough man’s race with some hilly stages thrown in to prevent it being all about the ITT in the event of stronger teams arriving - the race has periodically grown bigger and more internationally prominent, attracting European teams - a few times Spanish elite amateur or Continental Pro teams have shown up, while in the 90s in the wake of Perestroika, several Russian and Ukrainian lineups found their way to Uruguay, with Vyacheslav Djavanian even winning the race in 1994, to become one of the biggest name extranjeros to win the race. A few other fairly well-known riders from the region can count themselves among the winners, such as Jorge Giacinti and 2017 and 2018 winner Magno Prado Nazaret, but for those who don’t follow so much racing outside of the top tiers, the biggest names to podium here would likely be the likes of former Movistar/Caisse d’Epargne riders Marlon Pérez and Carlos Oyarzún, or Tom Zirbel, for whom a contentious positive test scuppered his progression to WT status with Garmin.

Historically, the home teams have seen the favourites compacted into a small handful of teams, and multi-sport teams of great prominence in Uruguay dominate the early years of the race, especially Club Atlético Olimpia, the most famous athletics club in the country. As ever, however, the big football teams came to control a lot of the biggest talents and the upper echelons of the GC for many years were dominated by the two most famous names in Uruguayan sport: Nacional, and Peñarol - both have won the teams classification five times, and added several individual classifications to their collection too. A number of specialist cycling teams came to the fore as the football teams diverted less of their budget to extraneous sports, however, most of which remain in existence today - the most famous three being CC Amanecer, CC Fénix (which also organises the Rutas de América, Uruguay’s other major race) and CC Alas Rojas de Santa Lucía, currently operating as Schneck-Alas Rojas and the most successful team in Uruguayan cycling history.



In recent years, extranjeros have come from Brazil and Argentina in the main (often with a lot of success, especially from Funvic/Soul Brasil and Clube DataRo, the former even locking out the podium in 2017 thanks to a dominant TTT victory) with only a team or two from elsewhere, though the Rutas de América a few years ago even brought in ProConti teams from Spain. If this were to be the case I would only expect Caja Rural (on account of their Uruguayan riders) and maybe Manzana-Postobón, Burgos-BH or one of the American teams like Holowesko or Rally to show any interest - the race suffers in that respect from fixture congestion seeing as it is tied down to tradition - the final stage of the race historically happens on Easter Sunday and the Uruguayan national year begins when the final rider crosses the line on the final stage. The race usually lasts 10 days, with no rest, and stages vary in length from short to pretty long - often requiring fairly lengthy stages in the less populated inland areas but short stages to link the coastal and central cities, so you can see why larger teams concerned about the bottom line have little interest in flying across the world for a 2.2 race that lasts over a week - but at the same time, with its great sense of history and tradition, and the fact that the race is something of a cultural institution in the small River Plate republic, with live coverage available, as well as the challenge of finding ways to produce a challenging route in an area that is comparatively geographically benign, made it a race I was interested in trying to do something with. And so here we are: my Vuelta del Uruguay.

Stage 1: Montevideo - Montevideo, 118km





GPM:
Alto del Letrero x6 (1,4km @ 6,8%)

Historically, the Vuelta del Uruguay has begun and ended in Montevideo and that pattern has only recently come to an end. I have elected to reinstate it, but frankly only really because I didn’t want to finish the race on this stage as while the Cerro district offers the best racing opportunities in the city, it also means that we are denied the more scenic or historic finish in the heart of the city, instead finishing out of town in a western suburb, on the cost at the Playa Cerro.



Indeed, this is possibly the toughest stage of the entire race in terms of climbing that could legitimately be decisive in the stage outcome. Before they get to that, however, there is a loop around to the east of the city which takes us around near the airport and the new, out-of-town home of Uruguay’s most successful and marginally most popular football team, CA Peñarol. Formed as the Central Uruguay Railway Cricket Club by British expats, the team swiftly moved from cricket to football and became heady rivals of Nacional, their perennial opposition for both footballing supremacy within Uruguay and the hearts and minds of the fans. As mentioned above, both are multi-sport clubs who have also fought out their battle on the roads of their homelands, often with great success. The CC Peñarol still appears regularly in the Vuelta del Uruguay but the club will always be most closely associated with its football arm, which has won five Copa del Libertadores titles and nearly 50 national titles, with the exact figures somewhat unclear due to a combination of the Apertura-Clausura system and points penalties for failure to control fans which have cost them three in-season titles.



The aurinegros have had plenty of success in the Vuelta del Uruguay, however, so we honour that with an intermediate sprint in their home barrio. Peñarol riders have won the GC on nine occasions - a remarkable streak back in the 1950s with Dante Sudatti opening the club’s account in 1952, followed by Aníbal Donatti in 1953, then back to back wins for Luís Pedro Serra in 1954 and 1955, then finally Juan Bautista Tiscornia in 1956, before a long period until the team’s second stint on top, capped with four triumphs from Uruguayan cycling legend Federico Moreira from 1989 through to 2002.

After that we enter six laps of a 10,2km circuit which is built around the small climb of the Alto del Letrero, which climbs up to the old fortifications on the Cerro and the Fortaleza General Artigas; now converted into the Uruguayan military museum, this fortification on the hill overlooking the city has been Montevideo’s main line of defence throughout its existence, on the only prominent elevation in the nearby area. Though it’s a short stage, this will still likely be able to produce some decisive gaps as there aren’t too many puncheurs in the peloton of Uruguay, and with six ascents of the punchy climb which gets up to 11% max according to cronoescalada, the last of which crests a mere 3,4km from the line, it’s a chance for those less likely to make up time in bonuses at metas volantes and in sprints to take the lead, and try to control the race from that position of strength. The finish is on the seafront, by the Playa Cerro, where recently large block lettering to celebrate the city has been installed in full view from the Mirador at the fortifications. This stage should set up the GC in interesting fashion as some of the sprinters might have deficits to make up.

 
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Stage 2: Canelones - Colonia del Sacramento, 181km





The second stage of the Vuelta del Uruguay is an ugly and difficult slog for the riders as they head for the southwestern corner of the country. The stage sets off from Canelones, capital of the eponymous province despite being dwarfed in size by Las Piedras and Ciudad de la Costa. This city takes its name from a type of cinnamon commonly grown nearby, and is the home of one of Uruguay’s legendary founding fathers, the 33 Orientales, Juan Spikerman, as well as being the home of the first head of state of the then proto-Uruguayan state, Joaquín Suárez, who later became president for a decade during the Uruguayan Civil War, who is credited with the design for the Uruguayan flag and whose legacy is so great that he has an entire city named after him, which we passed through on the preceding stage.



Early in the stage - less than ten kilometres in - we have an intermediate sprint, in the city of Santa Lucía. This city has prominent history in Uruguayan cycling, as the hone to the Alas Rojas de Santa Lucía team mentioned in my preamble. They are level with Nacional and Peñarol on 5 team classification victories in the Vuelta, one behind Policial and also level with the most successful extranjero team, Caloi. Formed in 1963, the Alas Rojas team had some success in the 70s, but never took their national Tour, although they managed two podiums and also managed a solitary victory in the Rutas de América. In the 1990s, however, the team was rejuvenated, and from 2000 onward they became one of the most feared units in the rioplatense péloton, with their Argentine rider Javier Gómez winning the Vuelta twice and local hero Richard Mascarañas adding two further triumphs; more recently, in 2016 Néstor Pías was the last home rider to triumph in the race which he did while riding in the colours of Schneck-Alas Rojas; the team were equally successful in the Rutas de América, with Gómez and Pías both winning alongside further triumphs for Héctor Águilar and two for Hernán Cline.

Alas Rojas de Santa Lucía was also the original team for possibly the most well-known Uruguayan in the modern péloton, Fabricio Ferrari, who is from Santa Lucía and got his start with his local team. He won a stage of the Vuelta del Uruguay as a 19-year-old, and relocated to Spain, coming under the wing of Héctor Raúl Rondán, a former pro with Reynolds (Abarcá) and the first Uruguayan to ride the Vuelta a España - Ferrari himself would become the 2nd, after turning pro with Caja Rural and entering a Grand Tour for the first time in 2013. Professional victories have thus far eluded him, but the GPM of the Volta a Portugal a few years ago, and the podium of the Vuelta a Madrid, along with some solid placements throughout the Spanish calendar, established him a good niche within the ProContinental péloton, especially as one of the very few non-sprinters representing the Río de la Plata in the European cycling world, before moving to Portugal to compete with Efapel in 2019. Owing to his tough rouleur background he’s also often a willing baroudeur, most notably showing the Uruguayan jersey at the very front of the World Championships in Valkenburg in 2012, and has collected a good few secondary jerseys for combativity, metas volantes and similar in his career.



There is also a second early intermediate sprint in the first hour or so of racing, in San José de Mayo. This city of 40.000 is known for its monument to one of Uruguay’s most beloved traditions - mate - and is also the home of two time Vuelta winner Luís Pedro Serra. Also a successful track cyclist, he also won Pan-American Games medals in the kilo TT and participated in three Olympic Games, before travelling to Europe and becoming the founding father of Uruguayan grass roots motorsport, setting up the first permanent karting circuit in the country.

The main decisive factor in this second stage is, however, sterrato, and there’s a lot of it. I’m aiming to create significant time gaps early on in the Vuelta del Uruguay and prevent therefore the sprinters’ teams from assuming control early on and then managing it from then on in. There are six sterrato sectors in the stage, which combine for a total of a whopping 56,3km of unpaved rouleur monstrosities, the last of which is exited just 7km from the line. The first stretch is the longest, at 16,6km in length, on the well-known Camino del Carretón.



There is some respite after this however, with a 20km tarmac stretch as we head toward the coast; after a couple more stretches we arrive for the last of the day’s metas volantes, in the town of Juan Lacaze, which is home to many successful footballers, most notably national legend Cristián Rodríguez, a midfielder with over 100 caps for La Celeste and a formidable record of domestic trophies won over a career bookended at Peñarol but including spells at Paris Saint-Germain, Benfica, Porto and Atlético Madrid. This sprint comes just 3km after the end of an 11km sterrato sector and around 50km from the line so this could be where the first real moves in earnest come, especially as at the 130km mark, this is where the endurance of the aficionado riders starts to prove a problem for them.

The rest of the stage sees us crossing over and over the Ruta 1 highway from Montevideo to Colonia del Sacramento, an old colonial outpost and trading hub on the Río de la Plata that has changed hands a number of times between Spain and Portugal in colonial days, and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site in recognition of its historic architecture and its significance and with its remnants of old colonial times at its heart; the city plan is irregular as the fortifications that protected it were removed in the 18th Century, however their location is easy to ascertain; the old Portuguese walled city followed the land contours, whereas the Spanish city was built later as it expanded into the flat land on the outside of the walls and follows a regular grid pattern.



The Vuelta del Uruguay’s all-time record-holder for the number of stage wins calls the city his home, though it would not be a stage that he would especially like today; Gregorio Bare was a somewhat one-dimensional sprinter as a road cyclist and never troubled the GC of the Vuelta, despite representing his country at three Olympics - Barcelona ’92, Atlanta ’96 and Sydney 2000 - and taking him no fewer than 19 stages spread from 1993 to 2002. In 1999 he also won a number of gold medals on the track at the ‘B’ Worlds, which helped him win Uruguayan Sportsman of the year.



This stage is one of the key ones for the GC, as we turn northwards after this, to take on the interior on stages that are more about linking the locations than ones with any great freedom for creativity for traceurs. However, after stage 1’s hilly circuit and stage 2’s dirt roads, we should have set up a bit of a deficit for the sprinters that suggests time bonuses alone might not solve their problems.
 
Stage 3: Carmelo - Fray Bentos, 136km





Our first ‘true’ flat stage, one for the sprinters, is a shortish stage up against the Argentine border as we turn northwards. This should be an extremely fast stage, as the most common prevailing wind direction in Uruguay is in from the Atlantic, so this would be a cross-tail-wind blowing from behind the riders’ right shoulders for much of the stage, and its comparatively short 136km distance ought not to dissuade riding hard from the gun; however, a pampero blowing across from Argentina could see wind direction change, and there’s also always the possibility of weather systems seeing a west-to-east crosswind for the riders to deal with; one thing that’s always worth noting about the Pampas is that not only are they very flat, but they’re also not very tamed in terms of protection from the wind, so the riders will be glad for a fully tarmacked stage, but they will also now have to worry about the weather forecast.

The stage start in Carmelo honours possibly Uruguayan cycling’s first hero, El León de Carmelo, Atilio François. Born in the small village of Juan González just outside Carmelo, François’ talent showed early, winning a regional championship at the age of just 16, and being one of the first riders from the Banda Oriental to win significant races on Argentine soil; still starting for his local team, he finished 3rd in the second Vuelta del Uruguay, before the suspension of the race for a number of years led him to pursue other avenues in the sport. A specialist on the track as well as the road, he won a number of national titles in various categories, but his greatest achievement was probably the silver medal in the pursuit in the 1947 World Championships (amateur category), and he was also part of Uruguay’s Olympic TTT offerings in 1948 and 1952. By this time, however, he was already a major champion at home; having moved to the Veloz team, he won three back to back Vueltas when the race recommenced in 1946, winning 12 out of 25 stages over that three year reign of terror (two further stages were annulled). After this period though, he focused more on the track and spent less time on the road, moving to Peñarol in the early 1950s before an abrupt retirement at the age of 30 after competing in one last World Championships. He worked as a trainer for the Uruguayan team for a while and was a key part of the organisational committee that brought the World Championships in track cycling to Montevideo in the 1960s (the pro events were in Rome, the amateur events in Montevideo), after which the Velódromo Municipal de Montevideo was renamed the Velódromo Municipal Atilio François in his honour; he remained a popular figure until his death in 1997 at the age of 75.



The main stop-offs for the race en route to Fray Bentos are Dolores, a city which was ravaged by a severe tornado - reaching F3, far stronger than is typical in this part of the world - in 2016, with seven killed and 400 houses destroyed, and Mercedes, the capital of the Soriano Department which we are travelling through. With 41.000 inhabitants it just scrapes into the top 10 of most populous cities in the country, and hosts an intermediate sprint here just before the river crossing that takes us across the Rio Negro and into the river’s eponymous department, whose capital we are headed for as our final destination in this stage.

With a port on the Río Uruguay, Fray Bentos is industrially and economically important for the nation of Uruguay, and has been for many years. An old industrial complex from the meat-packing trade has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site (no, really), and its name lives on as a brand of pre-packed meat products to this day.



Although the meat-processing plant may be a thing of yesteryear (and the Fray Bentos-branded meat products are now manufactured in Great Britain), however, industrial processes remain a key part of Fray Bentos’ economy, and the city is home to one of the largest pulp mills in the world, which was the source of a protracted dispute between Uruguay and its Argentine brethren in recent years, with the latter upset by the effect on tourism in the Río Uruguay area, and the former contesting that as the river ecology was not affected and they were on their own soil they ought not be prevented from building the mills.

Fray Bentos also has a link to cycling that makes it a perfect - and regular - host for the Vuelta del Uruguay; not only is it the hometown of Héctor Raúl Rondán, who as mentioned in the last stage became the first Uruguayan to enter the Vuelta a España, but it is also the hometown of Juan José Timón. Timón is an interesting figure as he gives the lie to the stereotype of Uruguayan cycling as being all about flat racing, sprinting and time trialling. He actually turned pro and raced for Molteni, albeit before Eddy Merckx appeared on the scene, but he was already 28 as he had wanted to complete his goal of winning his home nation’s race before turning pro. As well as contending on home terrain, Timón was, uncharacteristically for a rioplatense cyclist, an excellent climber, winning the GPM at the 1960 Vuelta de la Juventud Mexicana, a sort of ersatz Vuelta a México as that was running sporadically at the time, which was held as an amateur race across a two week duration, and winning the race outright in 1961 and 1962. However, despite status as an icon of cycling in his homeland, with numerous stage wins on home turf, and a bronze medal in the TTT at the World Championships, no less, to go with Team Pursuit golds at the Pan-American Games, the overall win at the Vuelta del Uruguay eluded him until 1965, after which he led a short career in Europe; however, not adapting well to life in Italy, he soon returned to South America, and after a lengthy period living in Brazil working with the Calói company, he took up a role as sporting director for the Uruguayan national team, providing an important role in Federico Moreira’s return from premature retirement and helping direct Milton Wynants’ successes in the late 90s and early 2000s, before his death aged 64 just a year after his work came to its peak fruition with Wynants’ Olympic silver medal.



There is a good chance, though, if you know of Fray Bentos, it isn’t to do with packaged beef products or Juan José Timón’s achievements; it was a favoured destination for the family of Argentine author Jorge Luís Borges, whose short stories mention the town a few times; it is mentioned in The Aleph by name, and also serves as the hometown of the protagonist of Funes el Memorioso, one of the author’s better known works. After I mentioned the work of Borges during my last Vuelta, this just happens to be a happy coincidence.

The stage will be a sprint.
 
Stage 4a: Paysandú - Salto, 115km





Stage 4b: Salto - Salto, 20,7km (CRE)





The fourth day is a split stage, including a TTT, which has been a key element in the early GC shakeup for the Vuelta del Uruguay in recent years. I mean, obviously all the usual flaws of a TTT still apply, and if anything are amplified by the flatter nature of the race than many other races where the TTT is a key component - for example, in the 2017 race, a victory by almost a minute in the format underpinned a lockout of the podium by the Funvic-Soul Brasil team, who were able to extend their lead elsewhere anyway thanks to their strength, with the first Uruguayan, Sixto Nuñez (who later failed a doping test anyway) nearly four and a half minutes back from the eventual winner, Magno Nazaret.



Running the semitappe, along a short trip down the Argentine border along the Rio Uruguay from Paysandú to Salto, first allows us to honour two of Uruguay’s most prominent cyclists. Away from the sporting arena, Paysandú is perhaps best known as the home of Los Iracundos, an enduring pop-rock and romantic ballad band from the 1960s best known for their hit Puerto Montt, named after the scenic city of southern Chile. In a sporting arena, though a number of footballers have come from the city, the favoured son is Milton Wynants, who won one of only ten Olympic medals that Uruguay has ever achieved, their first since Washington Rodríguez won bronze in the boxing in Tokyo in 1964 and their last to date, when he took silver in the points race in Sydney 2000, after getting to Sydney on an invitation as he hadn’t achieved the requisite qualification points; sitting outside the medals, he snuck through to take 2nd in the final sprint, the double points from which vaulted him up into the top 3 for an unexpected medal, which made him something of a star back home.

Wynants was no fluke, though - he also won a silver medal four years later at the World Championships, though he couldn’t repeat his Olympic successes either at Athens or Beijing. He did achieve an unusual double in the 2003 Pan-American Games in Santo Domingo, however, when he won both the points race and the road race; he was also a dab hand at stage races in his homeland, winning the Vuelta del Uruguay in 1996, after escaping with Hernán Cline to build up an advantage he could defend against Federico Moreira in an uncharacteristically long 50km time trial on the penultimate day and make the race into just a head to head between himself and Cline, the Uruguayan coming out on top of his Argentine adversary. He wasn’t typically a GC man at the Vuelta, however, only podiuming one more edition, in 2001 - though he did win the Rutas de América twice, in 1998 and 2007, preferring the race in which he had originally made his name in 1992. Wynants retired in 2010 at the age of 38, although he did have a brief, aborted comeback two years later.





The trip from Paysandú to Salto takes us from the hometown of perhaps the most well-known Uruguayan cyclist on a global scale, thanks to that Olympic medal, to the hometown of perhaps the all-time biggest icon of Uruguayan cycling. As the city is, with over 100.000 inhabitants, the second largest in Uruguay, it is perhaps not surprising that several key figures in the nation’s identity call the city home, but while the authors Horácio Quiroga and Enrique Amorim may add cultural heritage to the city (the latter campaigned successfully to erect a statue of Federico García Lorca in the city), and the city’s most famous progenies to most of us in the modern world will be the controversial footballers Luís Suárez and Edinson Cavani, two of the best players Uruguay has given the world since the days when they were winning the Olympics and the World Cup back in the 1920s and 1930s (as an aside, why is Suárez vilified so much for the handball against Ghana? Lots of players handle the ball on the line, but nine years on people still bring that up as a reason to hate him - there are plenty of other, more justifiable reasons than a desperation move sacrificing himself to potentially save his country’s World Cup run) - but the reason for the Vuelta del Uruguay rocking up into town is to celebrate arguably Uruguay’s greatest ever cyclist, Federico Moreira.



Already a junior Pan-American champion at 17 on home roads, he backed this up with a gold in San Cristobál de Tachíra in 1979, on the same course that had housed the World Championships two years earlier. He hit the top 10 of the Rutas de América the next year and by the time he took his first victory in the race, in 1982, he was well on his way to becoming an icon of Uruguayan sport after finishing 2nd in the Vuelta del Uruguay, just 8 seconds off the win and being the best Uruguayan in an edition dominated by overseas talent, with two Argentines on the podium and representatives of Italian and French national teams also filling the top 10. A year later he was again best Uruguayan, in 3rd place behind two Argentines, and in 1984 he repeated his heroics from two years earlier, with the Colombian Rogélio Arango this time keeping him from top spot.

They couldn’t stop him for long though, and by 1986 Moreira had taken his first GC win in his home race, after moving from the smaller teams that had sustained him through his early career to CC Amanecer. He then moved away from stage racing for a couple of years to prepare for the Olympics in Seoul, winning the points race in the Pan-American Games in 1987, but sickness put paid to his Olympic hopes and he returned to stage racing, winning the Rutas de América and then in 1989 his second Vuelta del Uruguay; he then moved to the giant of Uruguayan sport, Peñarol, and took a two further consecutive Vueltas to cement his position as a superstar. Only this time there was controversy - the great champion had tested positive for nikethamide, a respiratory stimulant often present in over-the-counter medication in South America. It was a source of great controversy and eventually Moreira was cleared, but it was a divisive topic that made his presence at the start-line of the 1992 Vuelta much anticipated - would he win a 5th as many wished, or would he wilt under the magnifying glass?

In the end it was a storm in a teacup, as the Peñarol team were disqualified for leading protests against poor racing conditions halfway through the race; Moreira took a break from competition after this, but after Juan José Timón persuaded him to return, he joined the Brazilian team Calói, the most successful extranjero team in the Vuelta del Uruguay, and was promptly 2nd in the 1996 edition, which motivated him to return to his homeland with Fénix, and subsequently deliver his record-equalling 5th victory in the Vuelta a year later. Two years later, the now-aging Moreira delivered a victory in the time trial in Fray Bentos that set him up to become the sole holder of that record with his 6th, a record which stands to this day - though it’s worth noting that Magno Nazaret now has three titles, and at 33 does have the time remaining if Funvic-Soul Brasil remain as dominant as they have been the last two years… Anyway, after finishing 2nd in 2000 when lightning couldn’t strike twice - the Argentine Javier Gómez bested Moreira in the chromo to take the GC overall - he returned to Peñarol where, aged 40, he reached his final podium in his home race, shepherding home teammate Gustavo Figueredo. He attempted the race once more, in 2005, in the aim of achieving the one stage win he needed that would match Bare’s record (both riders retired at around the same time), but couldn’t finish, and a similar tilt at the Rutas de América, which he had won three times (here he is winning in 1988), a year later met with a similar outcome, at which point he rode off into the sunset… only to soon resurface as the new President of the Uruguayan Cycling Federation, mainly as he was such a God in the sport in Uruguay that if he announced he was running for the job today, he’d be elected yesterday; Federico Moreira isn’t just the face of cycling in Uruguay; he isn’t just the voice of cycling in Uruguay. He is cycling in Uruguay.



The main success that underpinned Moreira’s success was his time trial, but he was also far more versatile than many riders who specialise in the rioplatense scene; he won the Vuelta a Chile’s mountains classification in 1984 and the overall in the same race a year later, so he could climb when he needed to, but he preferred to base his calendar around his home races throughout his career.

Like many great cyclists, Moreira’s children have also gone into the sport in the aim of following their fathers’ footsteps. Elder son Federico Agustín Moreira spent a brief period in Spain in 2013, but has settled into racing in his homeland primarily, where he has shown that he is a chip off the old block in terms of his style if not yet his results, winning the national ITT championship in 2017 and achieving his first GC podium in the Vuelta del Uruguay in 2018 at the age of 25. Younger son Mauricio has been more successful internationally; after winning the national ITT championship at the U23 level and two stages of the Rutas de América at age 20, he was, like his brother before him, invited to compete in the Spanish amateur scene, but he was much quicker to adapt, winning a stage of the Vuelta a Segovia, and a year later he was winning the GC at the Vuelta a Zamora, a short stage race which also includes a mountaintop finish at the Alto del Lubián, and turned professional with Caja Rural, where he’s in his second year and starting to settle in, finishing 2nd in the Boucle de la Mayenne and being visible in breaks in the Tour of Turkey. To a global audience he might already be better known than his Dad; but in his homeland, to eclipse his father’s achievements he’s probably going to have to win a Classic or a Tour de France stage or something.



The first semitappe is a flat stage with little to mark it; the second semitappe, the TTT, loops around the city from the Puerto de Salto to the Plaza Treinta y Tres, with the finish along scenic city streets that the teams will already have had a look at in the sprint finish earlier. I’m hopeful that this stage won’t ruin the race - in 2018 the TTT was 25km and we got a tense, close affair, whereas in 2017 a shorter TTT saw a wider victory margin and the entire podium drawn from the one team. The CRE has become a popular way of dividing up the GC in the first half of the race in recent years, however, so I’ll stay loyal to realism to a certain extent and accept the TTT here.

 
Stage 5: Salto - Tacuarembó, 208km





The only 200km stage of the race comes at the halfway stage, featuring a fair amount of rolling terrain but no actual climbs as we head through the sparsely-populated north of the country - indeed, we are at the point of placing metas volantes in villages with population levels of under 500. This is common terrain for the Vuelta del Uruguay, although often when headed in the opposite direction, the stage will officially be from Tacuarembó to Salto but the stage will not start for some 30 or 40 km west of Tacuarembó, I’m not sure if they drive the race caravan out to the Iglesia de los Orientales or just have an extremely long neutral section before kilometre zero.



It’s going to be a long and boring stage if the weather doesn’t play ball, but if it does play ball it could be carnage with echelons a major possibility, side on to the coast (albeit a long way inland, but as discussed, very little in the geography of Uruguay to break that wind), and also with some possibilities of poor road conditions. Here's a video of a short section of the road in the hills to the west of Tacuarembó, unfortunately with a pretty soul-destroying soundtrack courtesy of the execrable Bryan Adams.



Tacuarembó is a relatively young city in Uruguay, and at over 50.000 inhabitants one of the biggest of the inland cities in the country, second only to Rivera, on the Brazilian border, among northern Uruguayan cities. It isn’t a naturally occurring city, having only been established following presidential decree from General Fructuoso Rivera, a controversial figure in Uruguayan history, having been a great patriot who fought against the Brazilians in the defence of the Banda Oriental, rising through the ranks in the Cisplatine War, but who also quarrelled at length with Lavalleja and during his first term as President pursued a highly divisive policy of elimination of the native Charrúa people to help colonise the interior; until Rivera launched La Campaña de Salsipuedes in 1831, the Charrúa had lived more or less untroubled alongside the Spanish/criollo communities, but soon, at the behest of Rivera and at the command of his brother Bernabé, they were declared extinct, save for a small handful of survivors who were captured and sent for display in Paris. It is said that in the inland provinces there are around 200.000 (estimates vary around 50k either way) descendants of the Charrúa people, but it is only in the last 15-20 years or so that they have come to embrace and openly celebrate that ancestry; the name “Los Charrúas” is an appellation often given, somewhat ironically given the country’s role in wiping them out, to the Uruguay national football team.

Fructuoso Rivera also provoked, through his subsequent disputes with Oribe, the Uruguayan civil war, and de facto as a result of the armbands worn by the combatants, founded the Colorado Party, one of the most successful in the history of Uruguay (the supporters of Oribe were known as ‘Blancos’ for their white armbands by contrast). Six months after the annihilation of the Charrúa, Rivera instructed his brother to construct and develop a city in the location of Tacuarembó. Located on the Tacuaremboty river (a Charrúa word), the city was inaugurated under the name “San Fructuoso” (clearly, modesty was also one of Rivera’s characteristics, but officially it was named after San Fructuoso of Tarragona) in 1832, becoming the capital of the Tacuarembó department five years later, and being renamed after the department and the river at the turn of the century when the veneration of Rivera became a bit less fashionable. The location of the city was probably in memory of the Battle of Tacuarembó, then a plains area near the river, rather than an inhabited town, where the Brazilian forces finally subdued General Artigas and incorporated the Banda Oriental into Brazilian territory as the southern province of Cisplatina.



The city’s main sight is the Catédral de San Fructuoso, a national monument and the site of our stage finishing sprint. As ever, the city’s most famous children on an international level are footballers, but there are two cyclists of some repute who call the city home.

Still active today despite recently turning 40, Richard Mascarañas has won almost everything there is to win in Rioplatense cycling. A relative latecomer to the sport, he spent over a decade riding for the Alas Rojas team, mainly serving as a sprinter but developing enough of a tactical brain and time trial strength to become a GC threat in the Uruguayan stage races, culminating in the 2008 Vuelta del Uruguay, when he won from a breakaway in the 8th stage and successfully defended his lead in the ensuing time trial to hold on - a few weeks later he also became the first and to date only Uruguayan to win gold in the Road Race at the Pan-American Championships, which were held that year on home roads in Montevideo. Only one other Uruguayan has taken a medal in the format, Héctor Águilar’s bronze in Mar del Plata in 2012.

Two years later, Mascarañas duplicated his feat in the Vuelta, defending from start to finish after winning both of the first two stages, and in 2009 he became the only non-Argentine to win the Clásica Primera de Mayo, but after that, he has struggled to maintain winning ways in the larger races. He still picks up stages here and there, and was the national champion in 2017 (for which he was awarded a contender for worst national champion’s jersey of all time), but apart from a rogue 3rd in the GC at the Vuelta del Uruguay in 2016, it seems like he is on the wane and being replaced by a newer generation of Uruguayan talent, like Matías Presa and the Moreira brothers. I would also have mentioned Ignacio Maldonado, but he tested positive in the 2018 Vuelta a San Juan.



One of the riders who falls between those generations, who might have become one of the rider’s the national scene could rejoice in, was Ramiro Cabrera, another Tacuarembó native. Getting onto a Brazilian team - Avaí - early in his career, he got some good results in the Voltas ao Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo, before providing a shock GC podium at the Vuelta del Uruguay just a few weeks after his 20th birthday. A strong time triallist, he used those skills to escape to win the Volta de Gravataí and finish 2nd in the Rutas de América the following year, and replicated his GC podium at the Vuelta del Uruguay in 2010 as well as coming 4th in the Rutas de América, both underpinned by his skills against the clock. These performances drew the attention of Movistar, so when the Colombian-based Movistar Continental team was set up, and Telefonica had their interest in bringing in riders from all over South America, Cabrera was their choice to represent their interests in the River Plate - it made sense; he was young, he was strong against the clock, and he was promising.

Of course, that entailed relocating to Colombia, and of course the type of riders generated by Colombian cycling is very different to that created by Rioplatense racing; while Cabrera got to ride the Vuelta a Colombia, the Vuelta a Boyacá, the Vuelta a Antioquia and the Vuelta a Cundinamarca, he struggled to adapt to racing in high mountains and racing at high altitude, and so in 2012 the team utilised him more in races outside of Colombia, such as the lower altitude Venezuelan races, and in his home race where he finished in the top 10 once more. He did enter the Vuelta a Colombia once more, and with a top 10 in the prologue and a flat beginning to the race he held on to a good GC position for a few days, but inevitably fell away once the mountains started for real. Cabrera then returned to Brazilian cycling with Funvic but moved on to DataRo after one season. 2014 was a bit of a return to form, winning a number of smaller Brazilian races including 3 stages and the overall of the Volta a Goias, and then in 2015 he made a return to his home races, finishing 10th in the Vuelta del Uruguay, and then 6th the following year. Since then, however, he has disappeared from results sheets and it seems he may have retired quietly.

 
Stage 6: Tacuarembó - Durazno, 198km





The last of the stages on this all-flat loop around the northern and western parts of the country sees us heading southwards back toward Montevideo on what is also the last ‘long’ stage of the race. It’s also the most liable to suffer from headwinds, so may well be an endurance test, unless the wind is swirling in from the Argentine Pampas, in which case it’s going to be another trial by echelon.

It also includes our first categorised climb for a while, early in the stage, but surprisingly not as we pass one of Uruguay’s more recognisable natural features, the Cerro del Batoví. One of the most distinctive points of northern Uruguay, standing at 224m, the name mean’s “hill of a virgin’s breast” in the Guaraní language, a name adopted for the mountain owing to its curious shape.



The hill may be distinctive, but although the road in the vicinity ramps up slightly, it is only undulating at this point. Far more valuable for the climbing points is the 5km (at about 2 to 2,5% admittedly) drag up to the Parque Eólico Pampa, the largest agglomeration of wind farms in Uruguay. How windy does it have the potential to be? Well, Uruguay currently accrues over a third of its energy from wind power. Uruguay is one of the most sustainable countries in the world when it comes to the energy sector, with 95% of its power coming from renewable sources, and wind power is a large contributor to that statistic.



The Cuchilla de Peralta wind farm and power station is another landmark we pass, possibly the largest individual wind farm in the country. Perhaps the largest actual town we go through is Paso de los Toros, which holds a special place in Uruguayan lore because of the eponymous soft drinks - the story goes that a British immigrant challenged a local chemist from the town, who sold fruit-flavoured soda beverages, to produce a tonic water to match the British brands that were popular in Montevideo; after many months of careful tinkering with the proportions of the ingredients, Agua Tónica de Paso de los Toros was introduced to the populace in 1929 and became a hit, eventually being bought out by Pepsi in the 1950s and remaining a popular brand in Uruguay to this day, retaining its identity even in the face of the company’s more internationally recognised brands, in much the same way as Spain still has KAS and Norway still has Kvikk Lunsj - although alternative flavours have been added to the range, and aggressively hip marketing has been added to what had been a very old-fashioned drink.

After nearly 200km of trial by wind, however, the riders arrive in Durazno, regarded as the most central city of Uruguay and once its de facto capital city when the bitterly divided country had Montevideo under siege, though Montevideo maintained its own rule under Rivera and Oribe’s control of the rest of the country was in theory controlled from an outlying barrio - thus making it iconic to Uruguayan identity, which is not bad for a city with its history supposedly stemming from being founded during the Brazilian occupation of the Banda Oriental and named San Pedro de Durazno in honour of the Brazilian ruler of the time (an alternative story crediting Fructuoso Rivera has also been mooted; both would have propagandistic implications). It was in Durazno, however, that the quarrelling Rivera and Lavalleja agreed to work together to defeat the common opposition in the Brazilians, and also it was in a battle in Durazno that the supporters of Oribe and Rivera, during conflict, donned the white and red armbands that would later symbolise their parties’ lines of ideology and give names to the two parties that would define Uruguayan politics for the next 150 years.

 

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